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Hurricane Sandy
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Hurricane Sandy
  • Alternative Title:
    NOAA NOS Hurricane Sandy water level & meteorological data report
  • Description:
    "The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) maintains a network of oceanographic and meteorological stations along the United States coastlines and Great Lakes to monitor water levels, winds (speed, direction and gusts), barometric pressure, and air/water temperature. This report documents the elevated water levels, high winds and reduced barometric pressures recorded at stations along the East Coast of the U.S. from Florida to Maine during Hurricane Sandy. Station information and locations are contained in Figures 1 & 2a-2c and Appendices 1 & 2. Tidal stations are referenced to the standard chart datum of Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW), based on the National Tidal Datum Epoch 1983-2001 (Appendix 3). In addition, at several locations along the U.S. coast, water levels are provided relative to a geodetic reference datum, the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), to assist in relating water levels to coastal inundation estimates. Table 1 provides storm tide elevations and predicted tide elevations for stations affected by Hurricane Sandy by geographic region. Where available, water level elevations relative to NAVD88 are also presented, along with the residuals at the time of the maximum storm tides. Maximum storm surge levels are summarized in Table 3, ranked by amplitude. Storm tides are the maximum water level elevations during a storm passage. Residuals are the elevation differences between observed and predicted tides. Storm surge is the residual caused directly by the storm during its passage. Table 2 provides maximum wind speeds, wind gusts, and minimum barometric pressures observed at the stations during Hurricane Sandy. In addition, the report highlights stations which have exceeded historical recorded maximum water levels as a result of Sandy (Figure 3). The historical recorded maximum water levels are the maximum water elevation measured by a water level station with a continuous time series throughout a high tide cycle for the entire historical period. A complete cycle is required to calculate the maximum tide elevation, applying a best fit curve to the observations. These historical records may not have included the highest water levels measured at a station during an event if a complete high tide cycle was not measured due to station/sensor damage (Appendix 3). Individual time series graphs are provided for each station (Figures 4 - 74). For comparison and context, the historical recorded maximum water levels are displayed on the graphs, where available. The Highest Astronomical Tide (HAT) datum is also displayed to illustrate the elevation of the highest predicted astronomical tide expected to occur at a specific tide station over the 1983-2001 National Tidal Datum Epoch. Within data reports that CO-OPS generates for significant tropical cyclones, storms are designated by the most significant classification obtained throughout the storm's duration. While Sandy was, at times, a tropical storm, a hurricane and a post-tropical cyclone prior to making landfall along the East Coast of the U.S., the storm will be referenced as Hurricane Sandy throughout this report"--Overview.
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