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Identification and description of the common sponges of Jeffreys Ledge as an aid in field operations
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    "In November 2003, Jackie Riley, the librarian at the Northeast Fisheries Science Center's Woods Hole Laboratory, came across several old unpublished documents, and asked me whether we should keep or toss each one. This brief document is one of the 'keepers.' The information in this document is based on the pre-1978 cumulative in-situ observations and photographic records of diver-scientists with the long-defunct Northeast Fisheries (Science) Center, Manned Undersea Research and Technology Program (MURT), which was effectively the forerunner of NOAA's current National Undersea Research Program. The author, Kevin McCarthy, was a junior member of the MURT dive team when he authored this document in February 1978. At a surface level, this document is only a rough identification guide to some northern sponges. At a deeper level, it is apparently the earliest known species-of-occurrence list for sponges at Pigeon Hill -- which is now a long-term environmental monitoring station on Jeffreys Ledge in the Gulf of Maine. In our current era of concern over biological diversity and the effects of climate change on such, these older species-of-occurrence lists are becoming valuable benchmarks for measuring change. Interestingly, this document notes -- based on in-situ observations and photographic records -- the occurrence of six species of sponges not otherwise listed as occurring at Pigeon Hill in the most authoritative publication on such matters: 'Ecosystem Definition and Community Structure of the Macrobenthos of the NEMP Monitoring Station at Pigeon Hill in the Gulf of Maine' (NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/NEC-14; 1982; 143 p.)"--Foreword.

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