Ice and supercooled liquid water distributions over the Southern Ocean based on in situ observations and climate model simulations.
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Ice and supercooled liquid water distributions over the Southern Ocean based on in situ observations and climate model simulations.

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  • Journal Title:
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
  • Description:
    Three climate models are evaluated using in situ airborne observations from the Southern Ocean Clouds, Radiation, Aerosol Transport Experimental Study (SOCRATES) campaign. The evaluation targets cloud phases, microphysical properties, thermodynamic conditions, and aerosol indirect effects from −40°C to 0°C. Compared with 580-s averaged observations (i.e., 100 km horizontal scale), the Community Atmosphere Model version 6 (CAM6) shows the most similar result for cloud phase frequency distribution and allows more liquid-containing clouds below −10°C compared with its predecessor—CAM5. The Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) underestimates (overestimates) ice phase frequencies below (above) −20°C. CAM6 and E3SM show liquid and ice water contents (i.e., LWC and IWC) similar to observations from −25°C to 0°C, but higher LWC and lower IWC than observations at lower temperatures. Simulated in-cloud RH shows higher minimum values than observations, possibly restricting ice growth during sedimentation. As number concentrations of aerosols larger than 500 nm (Na500) increase, observations show increases of LWC, IWC, liquid, and ice number concentrations (Nliq, Nice). Number concentrations of aerosols larger than 100 nm (Na100) only show positive correlations with LWC and Nliq. From −20°C to 0°C, higher aerosol number concentrations are correlated with lower glaciation ratio and higher cloud fraction. From −40°C to −20°C, large aerosols show positive correlations with glaciation ratio. CAM6 shows small increases of LWC and Nliq with Na500 and Na100. E3SM shows small increases of Nice with Na500. Overall, CAM6 and E3SM underestimate aerosol indirect effects on ice crystals and supercooled liquid droplets over the Southern Ocean.
  • Source:
    JGR Atmospheres 126(24): e2021JD036045
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