Simulating a Mesoscale Convective System Using WRF With a New Spectral Bin Microphysics: 1: Hail vs Graupel
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Simulating a Mesoscale Convective System Using WRF With a New Spectral Bin Microphysics: 1: Hail vs Graupel
  • Published Date:

    2019

  • Source:
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Volume 124, Issue 24, 2019.
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Simulating a Mesoscale Convective System Using WRF With a New Spectral Bin Microphysics: 1: Hail vs Graupel
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  • Description:
    A modified Fast Spectral Bin Microphysics scheme (FSBM‐2) embedded into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to simulate a mesoscale deep convective system observed during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). FSBM‐2 uses modified source codes as compared to the current FSBM (FSBM‐1). In contrast to FSBM‐1, FSBM‐2 can simulate hail of several centimeters in diameter and includes additional processes such as spontaneous breakup of raindrops and aerosol regeneration by drop evaporation. It is shown that allowing large hail particles of diameters exceeding about 1 cm substantially increases the agreement between the simulated and observed squall‐line structures in both the convective and stratiform regions. In contrast, if graupel particles are used to represent high‐density hydrometeors in convective areas, the ratio of convective‐to‐stratiform areas diverges from the ratio seen in observations and maximum radar reflectivities are substantially underestimated. Analysis of snow size distributions in the stratiform area shows an important link between the ice crystals formed by homogeneous freezing in the convective area to ice particle number concentration in the stratiform region. Simulated raindrop size distributions in the stratiform area below the melting level from FSBM‐2 show a good agreement with observations. The regeneration of cloud condensational nuclei (CCN) by droplet evaporation and detrainment of these CCN to the stratiform region increases the concentration of CCN there up to 8‐ to 9‐km altitude; the additional CCN penetrate clouds and produce new droplets, leading to some convection intensification.
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