Endangered Species Act Status Review Report : Giant Manta Ray (Manta biostris), Reef Manta Ray (Manta alfredi)
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Endangered Species Act Status Review Report : Giant Manta Ray (Manta biostris), Reef Manta Ray (Manta alfredi)

  • 2017

Filetype[PDF-1.83 MB]



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  • Description:
    This report was produced in response to a petition received from Defenders of Wildlife on November 10, 2015, to list the giant manta ray (Manta birostris) and reef manta ray (M. alfredi) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). On February 23, 2016, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) announced in the Federal Register that the petition had sufficient merit for consideration and that a status review was warranted for these two species (81 FR 8874). This report is the status review for the giant and reef manta ray. This report summarizes the best available data and information on the two species and presents an evaluation of each species’ status and extinction risk.
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