| On the Secondary Eyewall Formation of Hurricane Edouard (2014) - :15286 | National Weather Service (NWS) | Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR)
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On the Secondary Eyewall Formation of Hurricane Edouard (2014)
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    A first observationally based estimation of departures from gradient wind balance during secondary eyewall formation is presented. The study is based on the Atlantic Hurricane Edouard (2014). This storm was observed during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) experiment, a field campaign conducted in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). A total of 135 dropsondes are analyzed in two separate time periods: one named the secondary eyewall formation period and the other one referred to as the decaying double eyewalled storm period. During the secondary eyewall formation period, a time when the storm was observed to have only one eyewall, the diagnosed agradient force has a secondary maximum that coincides with the radial location of the secondary eyewall observed in the second period of study. The maximum spinup tendency of the radial influx of absolute vertical vorticity is within the boundary layer in the region of the eyewall of the storm and the spinup tendency structure elongates radially outward into the secondary region of supergradient wind, where the secondary wind maximum is observed in the second period of study. An analysis of the boundary layer averaged vertical structure of equivalent potential temperature reveals a conditionally unstable environment in the secondary eyewall formation region. These findings support the hypothesis that deep convective activity in this region contributed to spinup of the boundary layer tangential winds and the formation of a secondary eyewall that is observed during the decaying double eyewalled storm period.

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