Wave climatology in the Apostle Islands, Lake Superior
Advanced Search
Select up to three search categories and corresponding keywords using the fields to the right. Refer to the Help section for more detailed instructions.

Search our Collections & Repository

For very narrow results

When looking for a specific result

Best used for discovery & interchangable words

Recommended to be used in conjunction with other fields

Dates

to

Document Data
Library
People
Clear All
Clear All

For additional assistance using the Custom Query please check out our Help Page

i

Wave climatology in the Apostle Islands, Lake Superior

Filetype[PDF-7.13 MB]


Select the Download button to view the document
This document is over 5mb in size and cannot be previewed

Details:

  • Journal Title:
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
  • Personal Author:
  • NOAA Program & Office:
  • Description:
    The wave climate of the Apostle Islands in Lake Superior for 35 year (1979–2013) was hindcast and examined using a third-generation spectral wave model. Wave measurements within the Apostle Islands and offshore NOAA buoys were used to validate the model. Statistics of the significant wave height, peak wave period, and mean wave direction were computed to reveal the spatial variability of wave properties within the archipelago for average and extreme events. Extreme value analysis was performed to estimate the significant wave height at the 1, 10, and 100 year return periods. Significant wave heights in the interior areas of the islands vary spatially but are approximately half those immediately offshore of the islands. Due to reduced winter ice cover and a clockwise shift in wind direction over the hindcast period, long-term trend analysis indicates an increasing trend of significant wave heights statistics by as much as 2% per year, which is approximately an order of magnitude greater than similar analysis performed in the global ocean for areas unaffected by ice. Two scientific questions related to wave climate are addressed. First, the wave climate change due to the relative role of changing wind fields or ice covers over the past 35 years was revealed. Second, potential bluff erosion affected by the change of wave climate and the trend of lower water levels in the Apostle Islands, Lake Superior was examined.
  • Keywords:
  • Source:
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120(7), 4869-4890
  • DOI:
  • ISSN:
    2169-9275
  • Format:
  • Publisher:
  • Document Type:
  • Funding:
  • Rights Information:
    Other
  • Compliance:
    Library
  • Main Document Checksum:
  • Download URL:
  • File Type:

You May Also Like

Checkout today's featured content at repository.library.noaa.gov

Version 3.26.1