Phylogeography of sugar kelp: Northern ice‐age refugia in the Gulf of Alaska
Advanced Search
Select up to three search categories and corresponding keywords using the fields to the right. Refer to the Help section for more detailed instructions.

Search our Collections & Repository

For very narrow results

When looking for a specific result

Best used for discovery & interchangable words

Recommended to be used in conjunction with other fields



Document Data
Clear All
Clear All

For additional assistance using the Custom Query please check out our Help Page


Phylogeography of sugar kelp: Northern ice‐age refugia in the Gulf of Alaska

Filetype[PDF-1.60 MB]


  • Journal Title:
    Ecology and Evolution
  • Personal Author:
  • NOAA Program & Office:
  • Description:
    Many Northeast (NE) Pacific fishes and invertebrates survived Pleistocene glaciations in northern refugia, but the extent that kelps survived in northern areas is uncertain. Here, we test the hypothesis that populations of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) persisted in the Gulf of Alaska during ice‐age maxima when the western margin of the Cordilleran ice sheet covered coastal areas around the NE Pacific Ocean. We estimated genetic diversities within and phylogeographical relationships among 14 populations along 2,800 km in the NE Pacific and Bering Sea with partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA 5′‐cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI, bp = 624, n = 543), chloroplast DNA ribulose‐1,5‐bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit‐3′ (rbcL, bp = 735, n = 514), and 11 microsatellite loci. Concatenated sequences of rbcL and COI showed moderate levels of within‐population genetic diversity (mean h = 0.200) but substantial differences among populations (ΦST = 0.834, p < .0001). Microsatellites showed moderate levels of heterozygosity within populations (mean HE = 0.391). Kelps in the same organellar lineage tended to cluster together, regardless of geographic origins, as indicated in a principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of microsatellite genotypes. The PCoA also showed evidence of nuclear hybridizations between co‐occurring organellar lineages. Individual admixture plots with population clusters of K = 2, 6, and 9 showed increasing complexity with considerable historical admixture between some clusters. A time‐calibrated phylogeny placed divergences between rbcL‐COI lineages at 1.4 million years at most. The time frames of mutation in the rbcL‐COI lineages and microsatellite population clusters differed among locations. The existence of ancient lineages in the Gulf of Alaska, moderate levels of genetic diversity, and the absence of departures from neutrality are consistent with northern refugia during multiple Croll‐Milankovitch climate cycles in the Pleistocene Epoch.
  • Keywords:
  • Source:
    Ecology and Evolution, 11(9), 4670-4687
  • DOI:
  • ISSN:
  • Format:
  • Publisher:
  • Document Type:
  • License:
  • Rights Information:
    CC BY
  • Compliance:
  • Main Document Checksum:
  • Download URL:
  • File Type:

You May Also Like

Checkout today's featured content at

Version 3.26.1