Pseudo-Kinematic GPS Results using the Ambiguity Function Method
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Pseudo-Kinematic GPS Results using the Ambiguity Function Method

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    Pseudo-kinematic positioning with the Global Positioning System (GPS) is a survey technique employed by the National Geodetic Survey. This technique, which could also be called broken static (or intermittent static), must not be confused with kinematic surveying. The kinematic survey method requires continuous carrier phase tracking while moving between survey monuments and places strong restrictions on the number of satellites without cycle slips. The pseudo-kinematic method is a static technique whereby a geodetic monument is occupied for, typically, 1 to 5 minutes for two or more occupations separated substantially in time (e.g., 1 hour). Tracking during the transitions between monuments is categorically not required but is often done for practical reasons (e.g., to avoid having too many files and to achieve more rapid reacquisiton of those satellites which were obscured en route). In fact, in pseudo-kinematic mode the rover receiver may be turned off while traveling between monuments.

    Pseudo-kinematic surveying (PK) promises substantial productivity gains over classical static surveys and can be employed where the regular kinematic method is impractical. (However the static GPS survey method will remain as the method of choice in a wide variety of situations.) Furthermore, PK is safer than the regular static mode in that a constant antenna height is normally involved. It is more accurate than the regular static mode where the last millimeter is important. These advantages are discussed. The paper also defines the PK method, provides a very brief history, considers alternative possible names, presents the mathematical and physical basis for the method with emphasis on what to do about all the cycle slips between occupations separated by an hour or more, and provides a number of examples and results.

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