Petrogenesis and rare earth element mineralization of the Elk Creek carbonatite, Nebraska, USA
Advanced Search
Select up to three search categories and corresponding keywords using the fields to the right. Refer to the Help section for more detailed instructions.

Search our Collections & Repository

All these words:

For very narrow results

This exact word or phrase:

When looking for a specific result

Any of these words:

Best used for discovery & interchangable words

None of these words:

Recommended to be used in conjunction with other fields



Publication Date Range:


Document Data


Document Type:






Clear All

Query Builder

Query box

Clear All

For additional assistance using the Custom Query please check out our Help Page


Petrogenesis and rare earth element mineralization of the Elk Creek carbonatite, Nebraska, USA

Filetype[PDF-17.36 MB]

Select the Download button to view the document
This document is over 5mb in size and cannot be previewed


  • Journal Title:
    Ore Geology Reviews
  • Description:
    Although carbonatites are the primary source of the world’s rare earth elements (REEs), the processes responsible for ore-grade REE enrichment in carbonatites are still poorly understood. In this study, we present a petrologic, geochemical, and isotopic evaluation of the Elk Creek carbonatite in southeast Nebraska to constrain the origin of REE mineralization. The Elk Creek carbonatite is a multilithologic carbonatite comprised of an early apatite-dolomite carbonatite, a middle/heavy REE-enriched magnetite-dolomite carbonatite, and a late-stage light REE-enriched, barite-dolomite carbonatite, as well as a suite of breccias. Neodymium, strontium, and carbon isotopic data from the early apatite-dolomite carbonatite, εNd(T) = 2.3 to 3.4, 87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.702704 to 0.702857, and δ13C = −3.3 to −3.4, indicate that the parental magma and REEs were derived from the mantle, and textural and chemical data suggest that hydrothermal processes played an important role in reaching ore-grade enrichment. Higher initial 87Sr/86Sr values (∼0.7041) of REE-mineralized lithologies are evidence that these fluids were derived, in part, from meteoric water that interacted with the country rock. Modeling of the C-O isotopic data reveals that some of the isotopic variation results from closed-system Rayleigh fractionation of an evolving carbonatitic magma between 300 and 500 °C, but an excursion to heavier δ18O is likely the result of interaction with H2O-CO2-fluids at temperatures from 400 to 100 °C. Hydrothermal dolomite has higher 87Sr/86Sr values than early-formed magmatic dolomite, consistent with metasomatism by fluids derived, in part, from a more radiogenic source such as the Precambrian-age wall rock. Rare earth element mineralization occurs primarily in fine-grained, cavity filling minerals including monazite, bastnäsite, parisite, and synchysite along with barite, dolomite, quartz, and iron oxides. We interpret the LREE enrichment at Elk Creek to be the product of hydrothermal fluids derived from the evolving carbonatite magma and fluids from the wall rock. The REEs likely became enriched in late-stage fluids from the evolving magma as well as being remobilization by the dissolution of earlier formed minerals. Middle/heavy REE-enrichment in the magnetite-dolomite carbonatite is hosted in hydrothermal dolomite and is attributed to variations in the composition of hydrothermal fluids.
  • Source:
    Ore Geology Reviews, 146, 104953
  • ISSN:
  • Format:
  • Publisher:
  • Document Type:
  • Rights Information:
    CC BY
  • Compliance:
  • Main Document Checksum:
  • File Type:

Supporting Files

  • No Additional Files

More +

You May Also Like

Checkout today's featured content at

Version 3.24