| An overview of the biology, ecology, and fisheries of the clupeoid fishes occurring in the Gulf of Maine - :5081 | National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
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An overview of the biology, ecology, and fisheries of the clupeoid fishes occurring in the Gulf of Maine
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An  overview of the biology, ecology, and fisheries of the clupeoid fishes occurring in the Gulf of Maine
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    Clupeoid species are important ecological components within marine and riverine ecosystems of the Gulf of Maine. This report summarizes information (1953-1995) for eight species of c1upeid fishes (Clupeidae) and two species of anchovy (Engraulidae) occurring in the Gulf of Maine. Accounts are presented for Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), Atlantic thread herring (Opisrhonema oglinum), Atlantic round herring (Etrumeus teres), Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), Hickory shad (Alosa mediocris), American shad (A. sapidissima), Alewife (A. pseudoharengus), Blueback herring (A. aestivalis), Bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) and Striped anchovy (Anchoa hepsetus). Identification keys to families, genera and species are provided. Systematic, biological, ecological, distributional and fisheries data are summarized for each species, with emphasis on data derived from populations in the Gulf of Maine. Whenever possible, natural and human-induced environmental factors affecting populations of clupeoid species in the Gulf are discussed. An extensive bibliography of the literature on these species is also provided, with special concentration on populations occurring in the western Atlantic. Recent declines in abundance, especially of anadromous species and the Atlantic herring, are discussed relative to environmental and fishery practices, as well as the conservation measures being afforded these species. Although considerable information is available for most c1upeoid species occurring in the Gulf of Maine, significant gaps in our information remain for some species. Information needs should be addressed to improve understanding of the population biology and ecological interactions of these species within Gulf of Maine communities.

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