| Use of marine habitats by Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) from Laysan Island : satellite-linked monitoring in 2001-2002 - :4790 | National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
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Use of marine habitats by Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) from Laysan Island : satellite-linked monitoring in 2001-2002
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    "The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is endemic to the Hawaiian Island Archipelago with six principal colonies in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and reefs of the archipelago. The species was designated as Endangered in 1976 under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) following declines of 50% from the late 1950s. Overall, numbers declined about 11% annually from 1989 through the mid-1990s, owing to low birth rates and poor survival of neonates and juveniles from a variety of known and unknown causes (e.g., Gilmartin and Eberhardt, 1995; Antonelis and Ragen, 1997; Craig and Ragen, 1999). The Hawaiian monk seal metapopulation now numbers 1,300 to 1,400 with colonies at six isolated sites in the NWHI and small but increasing numbers at the main Hawaiian Islands (Ragen and Lavigne, 1999; Baker and Johanos, 2004). Here we report the results of studies conducted at Laysan Island 1 (25�46'N, 171�44'W; Figures 1, 2), the second largest colony at 250-300 seals, from October 2001 through September 2002 to define the general geographic and vertical marine habitats used by seals when foraging"--Introduction.

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