The Occurrence of Large Floods in the United States in the Modern Hydroclimate Regime: Seasonality, Trends, and Large-Scale Climate Associations
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The Occurrence of Large Floods in the United States in the Modern Hydroclimate Regime: Seasonality, Trends, and Large-Scale Climate Associations

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  • Journal Title:
    Water Resources Research
  • Description:
    Many studies investigate river floods by analyzing annual maximum series that record the largest flow of each year, including many within-bank events inconsequential for human communities. Fewer focus on larger floods, especially at the continental scale. Using 473 streamgages across the conterminous United States with near-natural flow from 1966 to 2015, we characterized the seasonality, occurrence, and climatic associations of the 10 largest and 2 largest floods at each site. These are often overbank events that have ecosystem functions and pose risks to humans. We grouped sites into 14 clusters corresponding to climatic and physiographic regions and characterized their flood seasonality at a monthly resolution using a probabilistic method. We then evaluated annual occurrence regionally and nationally, and seasonal occurrence regionally, by complementing a traditional approach to trend analyses with a novel method based on expected occurrence. Relationships between flood occurrence and climate indices were also investigated. Large floods have strong seasonality in some regions, but in areas with numerous flood-generating mechanisms, seasonality is more complex. There is little evidence nationally that large riverine floods are more or less frequent than expected in recent years and only two regions show significant trends in annual counts; few show seasonal trends. We found some regional relationships between flood counts and climate indices, annually and seasonally; nationally the Pacific North American pattern is related to annual counts of the 2 largest floods. Large-flood occurrence was generally stable across the United States in the last five decades; this may or may not continue with projected warming.
  • Source:
    Water Resources Research, 58, e2021WR030480
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    Public Domain
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