Testing the sensitivity of the extratropical response to the location, amplitude, and propagation speed of tropical convection
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Testing the sensitivity of the extratropical response to the location, amplitude, and propagation speed of tropical convection

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  • Journal Title:
    Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
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    The dynamical core of a dry global model is used to investigate the role of central Pacific versus warm pool tropical convection on the extratropical response over the North Pacific and North America. A series of model runs is performed in which the amplitude of the warm pool (WP) and central Pacific (CP) heating anomalies associated with the MJO and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is systematically varied. In addition, model calculations based on each of the eight MJO phases are performed, first using stationary heating, and then with heating corresponding to a 48-day MJO cycle and to a 32-day MJO cycle.

    In all model runs, the extratropical response to tropical convection occurs within 7–10 days of the convective heating. The response is very sensitive to the relative amplitude of the heating anomalies. For example, when heating anomalies in the WP and CP have similar amplitude but opposite sign, the amplitude of the extratropical response is much weaker than is typical for the MJO and ENSO. For the MJO, when the WP heating anomaly is much stronger than the CP heating anomaly (vice versa for ENSO), the extratropical response is amplified. For the MJO heating, it is found that the extratropical responses to phases 4 and 8 are most distinct. A likely factor contributing to this distinctiveness involves the relative amplitude of the two heating anomalies. The stationary and moving (48- and 32-day) heating responses are very similar, revealing a lack of sensitivity to the MJO phase speed.

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    J. Atmos. Sci. (2018) 75(2): 639-655
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