A New Empirical Model of NmF2 Based on CHAMP, GRACE, and COSMIC Radio Occultation
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A New Empirical Model of NmF2 Based on CHAMP, GRACE, and COSMIC Radio Occultation

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  • Journal Title:
    Remote Sensing
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  • Description:
    To facilitate F2-layer peak density (NmF2) modeling, a nonlinear polynomial model approach based on global NmF2 observational data from ionospheric radio occultation (IRO) measurements onboard the CHAMP, GRACE, and COSMIC satellites, is presented in this paper. We divided the globe into 63 slices from 80°S to 80°N according to geomagnetic latitude. A Nonlinear Polynomial Peak Density Model (NPPDM) was constructed by a multivariable least squares fitting to NmF2 measurements in each latitude slice and the dependencies of NmF2 on solar activity, geographical longitude, universal time, and day of year were described. The model was designed for quiet and moderate geomagnetic conditions (Ap ≤ 32). Using independent radio occultation data, quantitative analysis was made. The correlation coefficients between NPPDM predictions and IRO data were 0.91 in 2002 and 0.82 in 2005. The results show that NPPDM performs better than IRI2016 and Neustrelitz Peak Density Model (NPDM) under low solar activity, while it undergoes performance degradation under high solar activity. Using data from twelve ionosonde stations, the accuracy of NPPDM was found to be better than that of NPDM and comparable to that of IRI2016. Additionally, NPPDM can well simulate the variations and distributions of NmF2 and describe some ionospheric features, including the equatorial ionization anomaly, the mid-latitude trough, and the wavenumber-four longitudinal structure.
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    Remote Sensing 11(11), 1-21
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