| Southern Resident Killer Whale: Bioenergetics - :20728 | Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR)
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Southern Resident Killer Whale: Bioenergetics
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    Endangered Southern Resident killer whales face multiple threats, including reduced prey availability and disturbance from vessels, which can impact foraging behavior. Reduced prey acquisition has the potential to impact individual body condition, reproductive success, and survival. Quantifying how Southern Resident killer whale (SRKW) body energy reserves and condition are affected by food vessel exposure and food deprivation is critical to evaluating impacts to the Southern Resident killer whale population. We will evaluate the consequences (e.g., reduced body condition, reproduction, and survival) of reduced foraging success for endangered Southern Resident killer whales by developing a stochastic life-stage structured bioenergetic model. This bioenergetic model will be parameterized with values derived from a literature search and will allow us to quantitatively evaluate changes in individual body energy stores and condition as a consequence of prey limitation and anthropogenic disturbance. Impacts of both continuous disruptions and infrequent, minor disruptions will be investigated. We will also provide a flexible bioenergetic framework for conducting similar evaluations for other odontocetes (toothed whales, dolphins, and porpoises). This literature review is split into the following sections: anthropogenic impact, life history and ecology, bioenergetics, body composition, and management. In order to gather all available data there were no limitations placed on publication date.

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