| Examination of the Physical Atmosphere in the Great Lakes Region and Its Potential Impact on Air QualityOverwater Stability and Satellite Assimilation - :20378 | Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR)
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Examination of the Physical Atmosphere in the Great Lakes Region and Its Potential Impact on Air QualityOverwater Stability and Satellite Assimilation
  • Published Date:
    2018
  • Source:
    Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 57(12), 2789-2816.
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Examination of the Physical Atmosphere in the Great Lakes Region and Its Potential Impact on Air QualityOverwater Stability and Satellite Assimilation
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  • Description:
    High mixing ratios of ozone along the shores of Lake Michigan have been a recurring theme over the last 40 years. Models continue to have difficulty in replicating ozone behavior in the region. Although emissions and chemistry may play a role in model performance, the complex meteorological setting of the relatively cold lake in the summer ozone season and the ability of the physical model to replicate this environment may contribute to air quality modeling errors. In this paper, several aspects of the physical atmosphere that may affect air quality, along with potential paths to improve the physical simulations, are broadly examined. The first topic is the consistent overwater overprediction of ozone. Although overwater measurements are scarce, special boat and ferry ozone measurements over the last 15 years have indicated consistent overprediction by models. The roles of model mixing and lake surface temperatures are examined in terms of changing stability over the lake. From an analysis of a 2009 case, it is tentatively concluded that excessive mixing in the meteorological model may lead to an underestimate of mixing in offline chemical models when different boundary layer mixing schemes are used. This is because the stable boundary layer shear, which is removed by mixing in the meteorological model, can no longer produce mixing when mixing is rediagnosed in the offline chemistry model. Second, air temperature has an important role in directly affecting chemistry and emissions. Land-water temperature contrasts are critical to lake and land breezes, which have an impact on mixing and transport. Here, satellite-derived skin temperatures are employed as a path to improve model temperature performance. It is concluded that land surface schemes that adjust moisture based on surface energetics are important in reducing temperature errors.

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