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Managers, modelers, and measuring the impact of species distribution model uncertainty on marine zoning decisions
  • Published Date:
    2018
  • Source:
    Plos One, 13(10), e0204569.
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Managers, modelers, and measuring the impact of species distribution model uncertainty on marine zoning decisions
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  • Description:
    Airborne co-polarization and cross-polarization observations of ocean surface normalized radar cross section (NRCS) were conducted over the North Atlantic during January and February 2015. Observations were made using the University of Massachusetts' Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (IWRAP) radar system and a prototype antenna for the next-generation European scatterometer aboard MetOp-SG. Both were installed on a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D research aircraft to characterize the wind response of the ocean-surface cross-polarization NRCS. During the flights, numerous constant-roll-angle circle maneuvers were performed at several different angles to collect NRCS measurements over a range of incidence angles. Surface winds at speeds between 8 and 34 ms(-1) were observed at incidence angles from 20 degrees to 60 degrees at all polarization combinations. The majority of measurements fell between 8 and 20 ms(-1). Wind-direction dependence similar to copolarized NRCS was observed in the cross-polarized (VH) NRCS. The amplitude of the VH NRCS with respect to direction is less than that of copolarized NRCS at all wind speeds. Incidence angle dependence was also observed in the VH NRCS at all wind speeds. As a function of wind speed, the mean VH NRCS (A(0) has a similar shape to the VV NRCS. The VH NRCS appears to not saturate at most incidence angles, unlike the VV and HH NRCS. VH and HH geophysical model functions (GMFs) were developed as functions of wind speed, incidence angle, and wind-relative azimuth for the wind speeds and incidence angles observed.

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