Endangered Species Act status review report : Banggai Cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni
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Endangered Species Act status review report : Banggai Cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni

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    "On July 15, 2013, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) received a petition from WildEarth Guardians to list 81 species, including the Banggai cardinalfish, of marine organisms as endangered or threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to designate critical habitat. NMFS evaluated the information in the petition to determine whether the petitioner provided "substantial information" as required by the ESA to list a species. The petitioner asserted that the Banggai cardinalfish's restricted range (endemic only to the Banggai Archipelago in Indonesia) and genetic isolation render the species vulnerable to local threats, which include habitat degradation; harvest of its habitat (corals and anemones) for the aquarium trade; coral bleaching; inability of the species to move to new areas on its own when sea temperature rises; disappearance of corals because of global climate change; pollution and contaminants; harvest of individuals for the aquarium trade; disease and predation; the inadequacy of regulatory mechanisms (e.g., no concerted effort to replace wild-caught fish with captive-bred fish for the aquarium industry); and other natural or manmade factors (e.g., low fecundity; lengthy oral incubation period by males; susceptibility to indiscriminate collecting; lack of dispersal mechanisms; frequent earthquakes). The petitioner adds that synergistic effects of these threats also contribute to the species' risk of extinction. The petitioner argued that the United States represents one of the largest importers of wild-caught Banggai cardinalfish, making an ESA listing particularly effective"--Introduction, Page 1.
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