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Implementation in the NCEP GFS of a Hybrid Eddy-Diffusivity Mass-Flux (EDMF) Boundary Layer Parameterization with Dissipative Heating and Modified Stable Boundary Layer Mixing
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    Weather and Forecasting, 31(1), 341-352.
Filetype[PDF-1.73 MB]

  • Description:
    The current operational eddy-diffusivity countergradient (EDCG) planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme in the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) tends to underestimate the PBL growth in the convective boundary layer (CBL). To improve CBL growth, an eddy-diffusivity mass-flux (EDMF) PBL scheme is developed, where the nonlocal transport by large turbulent eddies is represented by a mass-flux (MF) scheme and the local transport by small eddies is represented by an eddy-diffusivity (ED) scheme. For the vertical momentum mixing, the MF scheme is modified to include the effect of the updraft-induced pressure gradient force. While the EDMF scheme displays better CBL growth than the EDCG scheme, it tends to overproduce the amount of low clouds and degrades wind vector forecasts over the tropical ocean where strongly unstable PBLs are rarely found. In order not to degrade the forecast skill in the tropics, a hybrid scheme is developed, where the EDMF scheme is applied only for the strongly unstable PBL, while the EDCG scheme is used for the weakly unstable PBL. Along with the hybrid EDMF scheme, the heating by turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation is parameterized to reduce an energy imbalance in the GFS. To enhance a too weak vertical turbulent mixing for weakly and moderately stable conditions, the current local scheme in the stable boundary layer (SBL) is modified to use an eddy-diffusivity profile method. The hybrid EDMF PBL scheme with TKE dissipative heating and modified SBL mixing led to significant improvements in some key medium-range weather forecast metrics and was operationally implemented into the NCEP GFS in January 2015.
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