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Origin and development of the NOAA Corps
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    "During the early years of the U.S. Coast Survey, the field work was directed by qualified officers officially entitled, "assistants." These officers were of three categories: civilians, Army officers, and Navy officers. In all the correspondence of this period, official signatures bore titles, as well as military rank. For instance: "Charles H. Davis, Lieutenant Commanding USN, Assistant USCS." After the Civil War, Army officers were not available for Coast Survey duty, and hydrographic parties were commanded by Navy officers or civilian assistants, according to the requirements of particular projects. In the 1870's, with the extending of "triangulation of the coast survey so as to form geodetic connection between the Atlantic and Pacific Coast" the "Coast Survey" became "Coast and Geodetic Survey"--Introduction.
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