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Effects of inclined and eccentric load application on the breakout resistance of objects embedded in the sea-floor
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  • Description:
    The expansion of the field of coastal and ocean engineering has resulted in a great increase in applications for floating equipment anchored in shallow and deep water. Many of these applications impose a stringent station-keeping requirement. One of the solutions for such applications is the use of tautline embedded mooring systems. Previous theoretical and experimental studies of such systems have been restricted to shallow-buried anchors with vertical load application. This study considers the forces required to break out model circular plate anchors embedded into three soil materials at depths of two and eight diameters when the load application is inclined from 90 degrees to 45 degrees from the horizontal and is attached from the mid-point over to one edge of the plate. A review of past published contributions on the subject of mooring and anchoring systems, embedded anchors, and anchor withdrawal studies is included. Previous attempts at the explanation of the mechanisms invoked during anchor pullout using existing soil mechanics theory are discussed and the resulting quasi-theoretical equations are given. A laboratory investigation of the displacements of individual particles of a simulated, dense, granular, cohesionless soil under inclined and eccentric load applications was conducted using a proven experimental technique involving a plane array of cylindrical, steel rollers. The displacements of the particles were observed through a plexiglas tank face and were recorded photographically.
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