| Superstructure icing in Alaskan waters - :11501 | National Weather Service (NWS)
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Superstructure icing in Alaskan waters
  • Published Date:
    1985
Filetype[PDF-837.92 KB]


Details:
  • Personal Authors:
  • Corporate Authors:
    National Meteorological Center (U.S.)
  • Description:
    "For marine purposes ice accretion may be defined as the accumulation of ice formed on 1) exposed structural components of ships or 2) structures above the water surface either on the coast or at sea. The importance of advising marine interests of the existence and expected location and intensity of ice accretion is twofold. Safety: The accumulation of ice on small vessels has the potential of causing serious handling problems leading to instability and capsizing. This is particularly true of fishing trawlers which may have tons of fish and water shifting about in their holds. The extra weight of ice on masts and rigging not only makes the vessel top heavy but also increases its "sail area" and hence the affect[sic] the wind has on it. This causes difficulties in handling the vessel. While larger ships have less of a problem with ice induced instability, the accumulation of ice on antennae makes radio communication difficult if not impossible and has a deleterious affect on radar. On all sizes of vessels ice accumulation presents a real safety hazard to all working on deck. Efficiency: During fishing operations the ability to work deck equipment unhampered is of prime importance. Ice accretion of course impedes the efficient use of deck equipment and slows the work. Larger vessels, particularly container ships, may find that upon reaching the destination port, the deck cargo is ice encrusted to the point where unloading cargo is impossible even though the vessel is safely berthed. Similarly ice accretion on coastal equipment used for unloading may preclude the efficient discharge of ships cargo, resulting in costly delays. Over the years a number of efforts have been made to model and establish relationships between ice accretion on ships and meteorological and oceanographic parameters. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the various ways of approaching this problem and to describe the NMC program to produce automated ice accretion forecasts."--Introduction.

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