| Seasonal climatology of surface energy fluxes on the Great Lakes - :11131 | Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR)
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    "We estimate the seasonal cycle of latent, sensible, and net heat flux from the surface of the Great Lakes, using lake surface temperatures derived from the NOAA/AVHRR satellite instrument, along with meteorological data from surface station observations. Several well-known features are evident. Among these are very high outgoing fluxes of latent and sensible heat during the late fall and early winter, which drive strong cooling of the lakes, and greater seasonal variation of surface temperature and fluxes in shallower waters. Due to strong static stability of the overlying atmospheric boundary layer during the spring, both the magnitude and the spatial variation of latent and sensible heat flux are small during the spring season, and to a lesser degree the summer. The annual cycles of latent and sensible heat flux over the Great Lakes are opposite in phase to the same fluxes over land, indicating a large exchange of energy via atmospheric advection between the lake and land surfaces. A major weakness of the method used here is that heat fluxes are calculated on the basis of an ice-free surface, making the derived fluxes for January through March suspect"--Abstract.

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