Status review report : orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula)
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Status review report : orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula)

Filetype[PDF-966.64 KB]


  • Alternative Title:
    Orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula)
  • Description:
    This report was produced in response to a petition received from the Center for Biological Diversity on September 14, 2012, to list eight species of pomacentrid reef fish as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to designate critical habitat for these species concurrent with the listing. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) evaluated the petition to determine whether the petitioner provided substantial information as required by the ESA to determine that listing these species may be warranted. On September 3, 2014, the NMFS Pacific Islands Regional Office (PIRO) announced in the Federal Register that the petition presented substantial information that listing may be warranted for the orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula), and NMFS requested information on this species from the public (79 FR 52276). Subsequently, NMFS initiated a status review of this species, which we document in this report. This report summarizes the best available scientific and commercial information on the orange clownfish, and presents an evaluation of the species' status and extinction risk. On September 3, 2014, NMFS PIRO also announced a negative 90-day finding for the six Indo-Pacific damselfishes: Hawaiian dascyllus (Dascyllus albisella), blue-eyed damselfish (Plectroglyphidodon johnstonianus), black-axil chromis (Chromis atripectoralis), blue-green damselfish (Chromis viridis), reticulated damselfish (Dascyllus reticulatus), and blackbar devil or Dick's damselfish (Plectroglyphidodon dickii). The NMFS Southeast Regional Office led the response to the petition to list the yellowtail damselfish (Microspathodon chrysurus) and announced a negative 90-day finding (80 FR 8619) for that species on February 18, 2015. In assessing four demographic risks for A. percula -- abundance, growth rate/productivity, spatial structure, and diversity -- we determined that the likelihood of these risks individually contributing to the extinction risk for the species is low or unknown. We also assessed current and predicted threats to the species and determined that the likelihood of these individual threats contributing to the extinction risk of the species throughout its range varies between very low and low-to-medium. We acknowledge that uncertainties exist regarding how these demographic risks and current and predicted threats may affect the species at both the individual and population levels. Of the 12 identified current and predicted threats, our greatest concern relates to the species' susceptibility and exposure to sedimentation and nutrients, as well as the inadequacy of regulatory mechanisms to address this threat, especially since juveniles and adults occur in shallow water and are non-migratory once they have settled into a host anemone. Therefore, we conservatively assigned a low-to-medium likelihood that both this threat and the inadequate regulatory mechanisms to address this threat may significantly contribute to the extinction risk for A. percula. The range of the species across heterogeneous habitats, the conservatively estimated abundance of 13-18 million individuals, the spatial and temporal variation in threats, coupled with resiliency and potential for trans-generational adaptive capabilities to future impacts all contribute to a low overall vulnerability of the species to the collective threats we have identified. We have determined that the overall extinction risk to A. percula is low, both now and in the foreseeable future. [doi:10.7289/V5J10152 (]
  • Content Notes:
    Kimberly A. Maison and Krista S. Graham.

    "April 2016."

    Title from online resource (viewed on May 13, 2016).

    System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader.

    Includes bibliographical references (pages 44-64).

  • Document Type:
  • Rights Information:
    Public Domain
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