{"Bibliographic":{"Title":"Day-night differences in radiosonde observations of the stratosphere and troposphere","Authors":"","Publication date":"1979","Publisher":""},"Administrative":{"Date created":"08-20-2023","Language":"English","Rights":"CC 0","Size":"0000065508"},"Pages":["A\nOF\nCOMMUNITY\nQC\n851\nU6\nN5\nTechnical Memorandum NWS NMC 63\n*\n*\nno.63\nwith\nANGELES\nSTATES\nOF\nH\nDAY-NIGHT DIFFERENCES IN RADIOSONDE OBSERVATIONS\nOF THE STRATOSPHERE AND TROPOSPHERE\nWashington, D.C.\nSeptember 1979\nnoaa\nNational Weather\nNATIONAL OCEANIC AND\nATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION\nService","4 TECHNICAL\nNacional eer logical Center\nNation\neather Service Nation Meterological Center Series\nThe National Meteorological Center (NMC) of the National Weather Service (NWS) produces weather anal-\nyses and forecasts for the Northern Hemisphere. Areal coverage is being expanded to include the entire\nglobe. The Center conducts research and development to improve the accuracy of forecasts, to provide\ninformation in the most useful form, and to present data as automatically as practicable.\nNOAA Technical Memorandums in the NWS NMC series facilitate rapid dissemination of material of general\ninterest which may be preliminary in nature and which may be published formally elsewhere at a later\ndate. Publications 34 through 37 are in the former series, Weather Bureau Technical Notes (TN), Na-\ntional Meterological Center Technical Memoranda; publications 38 through 48 are in the former series\nESSA Technical Memoranda, Weather Bureau Technical Memoranda (WBTM). Beginning with 49, publications\nare now part of the series, NOAA Technical Memorandums NWS.\nPublications listed below are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), U.S.\nDepartment of Commerce, Sills Bldg., 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Prices vary for\npaper copies; $3.00 microfiche. Order by accession number, when given, in parentheses.\nWeather Bureau Technical Notes\nTN 22 NMC\n34 Tropospheric Heating and Cooling for Selected Days and Locations over the United States\nDuring Winter 1960 and Spring 1962. Philip F. Clapp and Francis J. Winninghoff, 1965,\n18 PP. (PB-170-584)\nTN 30 NMC\n35 Saturation Thickness Tables for the Dry Adiabatic, Pseudo-adiabatic, and Standard Atmo-\nspheres. Jerrold A. LaRue and Russell J. Younkin, January 1966, 18 PP. (PB-169-382)\nTN 37 NMC 36 Summary of Verification of Numerical Operational Tropical Cyclone Forecast Tracks for\n1965. March 1966, 6 PP. (PB-170-410)\nTN 40 NMC 37\nCatalog of 5-Day Mean 700-mb. Height Anomaly Centers 1947-1963 and Suggested Applica-\ntions. J. F. O'Connor, April 1966, 63 pp. (PB-170-376)\nESSA Technical Memoranda\nWBTM\nNMC 38 A Summary of the First-Guess Fields Used for Operational Analyses. J. E. McDonell, Feb-\nruary 1967, 17 PP. (AD-810-279)\nWBTM\nNMC\n39\nObjective Numerical Prediction Out to Six Days Using the Primitive Equation Model--A Test\nCase. A. J. Wagner, May 1967, 19 pp. (PB-174-920)\nWBTM NMC 40 A Snow Index. R. J. Younkin, June 1967, 7 pp. (PB-175-641)\nWBTM NMC 41 Detailed Sounding Analysis and Computer Forecasts of the Lifted Index. John D. Stackpole,\nAugust 1967, 8 pp. (PB-175-928)\nWBTM\nNMC 42 On Analysis and Initialization for the Primitive Forecast Equations. Takashi Nitta and\nJohn B. Hovermale, October 1967, 24 pp. (PB-176-510)\nWBTM\nNMC 43 The Air Pollution Potential Forecast Program. John D. Stackpole, November 1967, 8 pp.\n(PB-176-949)\nWBTM NMC 44 Northern Hemisphere Cloud Cover for Selected Late Fall Seasons Using TIROS Nephanalyses.\nPhilip F. Clapp, December 1968, 11 pp. (PB-186-392)\nWBTM\nNMC 45 On a Certain Type of Integration Error in Numerical Weather Prediction Models. Hans\nOkland, September 1969, 23 pp. (PB-187-795)\nWBTM\nNMC\n46\nNoise Analysis of a Limited-Area Fine-Mesh Prediction Model. Joseph P. Gerrity, Jr., and\nRonald D. McPherson, February 1970, 81 pp. (PB-191-188)\nWBTM\nNMC 47 The National Air Pollution Potential Forecast Program. Edward Gross, May 1970, 28 pp.\n(PB-192-324)\nWBTM NMC 48 Recent Studies of Computational Stability. Joseph P. Gerrity, Jr., and Ronald D. McPher-\nson, May 1970, 24 pp. (PB-192-979)\n(Continued on inside back cover)","be\n851\nU6N5\n63\nno.\nNOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NMC 63\nDAY-NIGHT DIFFERENCES IN RADIOSONDE OBSERVATIONS\nOF THE STRATOSPHERE AND TROPOSPHERE\nRaymond M. McInturff, Frederick G. Finger,\nKeith W. Johnson, and James D. Laver\nNational Meteorological Center\nWashington, D.C.\nSeptember 1979\nSILVER SPRING\nCENTER\nNOV 2 1979\nN.O.A.A.\nU. S. Dept. of Commerce\nAND NOAA ATMOSPHERIC\nNational Weather\nUNITED STATES\nNATIONAL OCEANIC AND\nAMOUNT\nDEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE\nATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION\nService\nRichard A. Frank, Administrator\nRichard E. Hallgren, Director\nJuanita M. Kreps, Secretary\nOF\n79\n4035","CONTENTS\nAbstract\n1\n1.\nIntroduction.\n1\n2.\nTypes and numbers of radiosondes under study\n2\n3.\nProcessing and analysis of temperature and height data.\n4\n3.1\nData processing.\n4\n3.2 Plotting and analysis procedure.\n5\n4.\nDiscussion of scatter diagrams\n5\n5.\nUnexplained variability\n7\n6.\nConcluding remarks\n8\nAcknowledgments\n8\nReferences\n9\nAppendix\n10\nii","DAY-NIGHT DIFFERENCES IN RADIOSONDE OBSERVATIONS IN\nTHE STRATOSPHERE AND TROPOSPHERE\nRaymond M. McInturff, Frederick G. Finger,\nKeith W. Johnson, and James D. Laver\nNOAA, National Weather Service, National Meteorological Center,\nCamp Springs, Maryland\nABSTRACT. Day-night differences in temperature and height\nare used as the basis for a system designed to achieve\ncompatibility between data measured by various radiosonde\ninstruments. The resultant compatibility ad justments in\nreported data are a prerequisite to the analysis of strato-\nspheric constant-pressure charts above the 100-mb level,\nand for some instrument types they are significant even at\ntropospheric levels.\n1. INTRODUCTION\nIn the 1950's when great numbers of radiosonde balloons were able to\nascend for the first time above the 100-mb level and to provide stratospheric\ndata on temperature and geopotential height, large differences became appar-\nent between daytime and nighttime observations. Incompatibility was also\nobserved between temperatures and heights measured during daylight hours by\ndifferent radiosonde instruments used in adjacent countries. Teweles and\nFinger (1960) presented evidence that such irregularities at stratospheric\nlevels were largely fictitious. A number of other studies indicated that\nthe problem was most likely due to varying responses of different temperature\nsensors to solar radiation (Hayashi et al. 1956; Scrase 1956; Badgley 1957).\nFinally, Finger and McInturff (1968) showed decisively that the true diurnal\ntemperature range of the ambient stratosphere at middle latitudes is much\ntoo small to account for the observed discrepancies. Values for this temper-\nature range are approximately 1.0°C at 10 mb, and decrease with decreasing\nheight to 0.5°C at 30 mb; these values are lower, often by an order of magni-\ntude, than the day-night differences that were reported by stations through-\nout the Northern Hemisphere.\nSince the mid-1950's, several national meteorological agencies have devel-\noped systems to correct measured temperatures and computed heights at indi-\nvidual stations. Such efforts, however, have generally failed to solve the\nproblem of incompatibility between stratospheric observations. Correction\nsystems based on laboratory tests invariably fail on account of the impossi-\nbility of simulating real atmospheric conditions.\nMcInturff and Finger (1968), following Hawson and Caton (1961), showed\nthat compatibility between instrument types and between daytime and night-\ntime soundings could be improved through the application of mean day-night\ndifferences determined as functions of instrument type and of mean daytime\nsolar elevation angle. A study involving 33 months of twice-daily radio-\nsonde observations from 1964-66 provided the basis for sets of ad justment\n1","coefficients dependent on solar elevation angle. (These served to reduce\nsunlit observations to equivalent nighttime observations for levels from 100\nto 10 mb.) This empirical adjustment scheme was used operationally in the\nUpper Air Branch (UAB) of the National Meteorological Center (NMC) until\nits recent replacement by the results reported here.\nIn 1977 it was decided that the problem of day-night differences in radio-\nsonde observations would be reexamined. Reasons for this decision included:\n(1) developments in radiosonde instrumentation and reduction techniques\nwhich have rendered some of the old empirical ad justments obsolete; (2)\nchanges in use of instruments by different national meteorological services,\nespecially in parts of the world where high solar elevation angles might\nresult in large empirical adjustments; (3) requirements within the UAB for\nextension of the stratospheric (100 to 10 mb) analysis system to the tropics\nand the Southern Hemisphere (areas of the globe from which little information\nwas used in development of the original empirical adjustment scheme); (4)\napplication of the correction scheme in tuning the regression system used in\noperational reduction of Vertical Temperature Profile Radiometer (VTPR)\nobservations by the National Environmental Satellite Service (Werbowetzki\n1975).\nAs in the earlier study (McInturff and Finger 1968), it is stressed that\nattainment of compatibility does not ensure accuracy. For further discus-\nsion of this point, as well as more background material on high-level\nmeteorological observations, see Finger et al. (1978), which includes\nresults obtained by Spackman and others in the United Kingdom.\n2. TYPES AND NUMBERS OF RADIOSONDES UNDER STUDY\nThe present study is confined to the following radiosonde instruments:\nFinnish Vaisala, French Mesural, British Kew, West German Graw, U.S.S.R.\nA-22, U.S.S.R. RKZ, Japanese \"codesending\", U.S.A. NOAA, U.S.A. AN/AMT4,\nChinese, Swiss, Sangamo (employed by Canada and Portugal), and Australian.\nMany of these instruments are used outside the country or countries in which\nthey are manufactured, and they are often referred to by different names.\nFor example, the Vaisala instrument is widely used throughout the Scandinavian\ncountries, the Middle East, and South America; the Mesural is used throughout\nmost of the French-speaking world; the Australian instrument is used also in\nNew Zealand; and the U.S.A. AN/AMT4 is still widely used in the countries\nwhich at one time contained U.S. military bases. The instrument types listed\nabove account for at least 95% of the soundings that attain levels above 100\nmb.\nSeveral instrument types included in the present study were not covered in\nthe 1968 report by McInturff and Finger (example: Australia/New Zealand).\nIn some cases, as in those of the French Mesural and the U.S.S.R. RKZ, the\ninstrument was either still under development or else was not widely enough\ndeployed during the years 1964-66 to provide a sufficiently large statisti-\ncal sample.\n2","A significant gap in worldwide stratospheric radiosonde coverage has been\nfilled with the acquisition of Chinese data. Unfortunately, the data for\nlevels above 100 mb were not received until after the cut-off date for the\nsample used here.\nFigure 1 and figure 2 show the distribution of upper air stations through-\nout the Northern Hemisphere and throughout the Southern Hemisphere, respec-\ntively. Table 1 provides a summary of current knowledge concerning deploy-\nment of instrument types. The remark made in 1968 concerning a similar\nfigure and a similar table is applicable here as well: these representations\ncannot be definitive, in view of the changes that are continually taking\nplace in the network.\nA comparison of figures 3 and 4 shows what areas and on which dates various\nobservation points have daylight and darkness. The sunset and sunrise lines\nare depicted for 0100 GMT (fig. 3), December 15 and June 15, and the sunset\nand sunrise lines for the sames dated at 1300 GMT (fig. 4). These times are\nthose at which the radiosonde balloon with nominal 0000 GMT and 1200 GMT\nobservation times will normally reach the 10-mb level. The migration of the\nsunset and sunrise lines for March 15 and September 15 would lie midway\nbetween the lines for June and December. It should be noted that some coun-\ntries (e.g., the United Kingdom) are always in darkness at 0100 GMT and\nalways in daylight at 1300 GMT. Other countries (e.g., the U.S.A.) have\nlarge areas where in summertime daylight occurs at both observation times,\nand in wintertime darkness occurs at both observation times. Such areas and\nperiods of so-called \"double daylight\" and \"double darkness\" cannot be used\nfor computing day-night differences. However, there are sufficient areas\nand adequately long periods wherein one observation is in daylight and the\nother, 12 hours later, is in darkness, to permit the calculation of vast\nnumbers of day-night differences in temperature and geopotential height.\nTable 2 is a summary of numbers of observed day-night height differences.\nIt is important to keep these numbers in mind, not so much for the information\nthey provide on the decline in quantity of data at levels above 850 mb, but\nfor the interpretation of the scatter-diagrams and the applications of the\ntables of adjustments, which will be discussed further on. Sample size is\ncrucial in determining confidence-levels, so it can be seen, for example,\nthat one can place less reliance on any adjustment for the Mesural instrument\nused overseas (with only 356 day-night differences for a 19-month period at\n100 mb) than on the Mesural instrument used in Metropolitan France (with\n2,157 day-night differences at 100 mb for the same 19-month period).\nThe question of pretransmission corrections was dealt with in detail by\nMcInturff and Finger (1968). In the perspective of the present work, this\nquestion appears to have little importance, since all instruments require\npost-transmission corrections for solar-induced day-night differences.\nThus, even though pretransmission corrections in most cases result in drama-\ntic reductions in day-night differences, adjustments based on studies such\nas the present one are still necessary. Anyone interested in pursuing the\n3","question of pretransmission corrections may refer to the paper by McInturff\nand Finger (1968). For information on changes made by particular countries,\nspecialized publications by various meteorological agencies and radiosonde\nmanufacturers may be consulted (see, for example, Suzuki and Asahi (1978)).\n3. PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS OF TEMPERATURE AND HEIGHT DATA\n3.1 Data Processing\nThe data base for developing the empirical adjustment scheme presented\nhere is the archive of twice-daily rawinsonde reports received operationally\nat the NMC, together with calculated mean monthly solar elevation angles at\nvarious atmospheric levels based upon assumed constant launch times and\nballoon ascent rates (see the appendix for details of solar elevation angle\ncomputations). The calculation scheme (fig. 5) was applied to 19 months of\ndata from the period 1974-76.\nThe levels for which calculations were made are as follows: 1000, 850,\n700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30, 20, and 10 mb. Monthly\nmeans of 12-hour day-night temperature changes (AT) were computed from every\nreporting upper-air station in the Northern Hemisphere, also for all such\nstations in Australia and New Zealand.\nWe write\nAT = Ta - Tn\nwhere Td is the temperature obtained in daylight and Tn the temperature\nobtained at night; the daylight observation occurs at either 00 GMT or at 12\nGMT, depending on geographical location. The monthly-mean temperature dif-\nference for a particular station is given by\nN\n{\n(AT)1,\nAT =\nwhere\n1\n* 10 is marked by an\nasterisk in the scatter diagram, while each value based on a sample size n\n< 10 is marked by an oval. (3) The abscissa is divided into 10° intervals\nof solar elevation angle, whereas the ordinate AT is divided into 1°C-inter-\nvals and the ordinate into 10-meter intervals. (4) Averages for all the\ndaynight differences are computed within each 10° interval of solar elevation\nangle, and are indicated in each interval by a plus-sign (+) or a minus-sign\n(-); the plus-sign is used for means calculated before data-rejection, and\nthe minus-sign for means calculated after data-rejection. (If no data are\nrejected, only the plus-signs appear. If some data are rejected, normally\nboth a plus- and a minus-sign appear in the column affected, except when\nthey would be so close together as to interfere with each other.) (5) The\nstandard deviations of all the day-night differences are computed within\neach 10°-interval of solar elevation angle, and an envelope with half-width\nequal to twice the standard deviation and whose upper and lower boundaries\nare marked by 'S' or 'T' is indicated; 'S' is used in case no data are re-\njected, 'T' is used in case some data are rejected in the column under con-\nsideration (in which case the value of the recomputed standard deviation is\nused). In case data are rejected for a particular column, both 'S' and 'T'\nwill normally appear. Sometimes values of 'S' or 'T' will be so large as\nnot to appear at all on the scatter diagrams, although usually they appear\nas marking the upper boundaries of the 2o-envelopes. Most often the space\nleft at the bottom of the figure is inadequate to accommodate the symbols\n'S' and 'T.'\nExamples of the computer-plotted output are shown in figures 6 to 12.\n4. DISCUSSION OF SCATTER DIAGRAMS\nAlthough all the empirically derived adjustments, for levels 700, 500,\n300, 200, 100, 50, 30, 20, and 10 mb, will be presented as tables (in a form\nsuitable for ready insertion into computer programs), it is instructive to\nexamine a few of the scatter diagrams. It is not appropriate to present all\nof them since most of the information contained in these is presented in\nother forms throughout this paper. The diagrams shown here were chosen for\nno other particular reason than that each of these illustrates at least one\n5","important point. An understanding of these examples will facilitate the\ninterpretation and application of the tables which follow.\nFigure 6 is the diagram for the day-night differences in temperature at\n200 mb (0000 GMT sunlight) for the U.S.A. NOAA (VIZ) instrument. The amount\nof data represented can be estimated from the knowledge that each asterisk\nand oval-shaped symbol stands for an entire monthly-mean day-night temperature\ndifference for a single station; hence each symbol is derived from more than\n5 and less than 60 observations, in accordance with the convention explained\nin the previous section. The decrease in the amount of data with height,\nand the increase in scatter for this particular instrument, can be estimated\nby comparing this figure with that for 10 mb (fig. 12). The amount of adjust-\nment needed is also seen to be much less at 200 mb than at 10 mb. However,\nthere is still a slight adjustment to be made even at 200 mb, where it is\napproximately 0.5°C for most daytime solar elevation angles.\nThe visible scatter in these diagrams is due to intermonth, interstation\nvariability, since each symbol represents a monthly mean for one station of\nday-night temperature differences. Each symbol therefore corresponds to a\nstationmonth, and the amount of scatter of these symbols can provide a\nmeasure of intermonth, interstation variability. The intramonth, intrastation\nvariability is of course determined by the second moment of daily difference\nvalues about their monthly mean; this variability is hidden from us in these\ndiagrams. However, both intramonth, intrastation variability and intermonth,\ninterstation variability are taken into account in computing standard devia-\ntions of day-night differences for various instrument types; these standard\ndeviations will be discussed further on. For a more complete discussion of\nintramonth, intrastation variability and of intermonth, interstation varia-\nbility, see McInturff and Finger (1968).\nFigures 7 and 8, for metropolitan France and for overseas stations making\nuse of the French instrument (the Mesural), respectively, both groups employ-\ning (presumably) the same type of instrument, illustrate how different the\nresults can be in spite of supposed similarities in equipment. The scatter\nin figure 7 (as measured, for example by the distance between the mean and\nthe S-symbols near the top) is much greater than in figure 8; also the sample\nused for figure 7 is much larger than that used for figure 8. Of course\nthere is always the possibility that the overseas stations are using some of\nthe old rawinsonde equipment, manufactured before the thermistor was changed\n(1970); in this case, figure 7 and figure 8 would reflect differences between\ntwo instrument types.\nFigure 9 is an example of a scatter diagram in AT for the Chinese instrument\nat 100 mb. It may be readily seen that the mean value of AT hardly ever\ndeviates significantly from zero. The sample size is large, but because of\nEarth-Sun geometry the data are restricted to low daytime solar angles.\nFigures 10 and 11 are scatter diagrams of AT for 30 mb generated by data\nfrom the West German and Japanese radiosonde instruments, respectively. The\namounts of scatter are similar on the two diagrams. The one for the Federal\nRepublic of Germany (fig. 10) shows the means of the AT's (represented by\nthe dash-symbol) constituting approximately a straight horizontal line; this\n6","is due to the fact that pretransmission corrections based on sets of histori-\ncal day-night difference data have been applied. Ideally, the means of the\nAT's would be zero; the fact that they are not suggests that the pretransmis-\nsion justments are not quite so large as they should be.\nOn the other hand, the 30-mb scatter diagram of AT for the Japanese instru-\nment (fig. 11) shows unmistakable evidence of a pretransmission correction\nsystem which is adequate at daytime solar angles above 60° but not quite\nadequate at lower solar angles.\nFigure 12, showing the AT-scatter diagram for the NOAA (VIZ) instrument at\n10 mb, has already been compared with figure 6. 10 mb is the highest level\nfor which we present results. The reason is not hard to find: data are\nalready quite sparse at 10 mb (as evidenced by the preponderance of oval\nsymbols), and become much too sparse at higher levels. The reader should\ncompare figure 12 with figure 11 in McInturff and Finger (1968). (S)He will\nnote the same general configuration of the curve of mean AT, indicating that\nthis particular instrument is performing at 10 mb in much the same manner as\nit did 10 years earlier.\n5. UNEXPLAINED VARIABILITY\nAs already indicated by McInturff and Finger (1968), at least five sources\ncontribute to the standard deviations of AT about the mean of the day-night\ndifferences (for a standard height, a given daytime solar elevation angle,\nfor any of the instrument types under study) (1) Differences between indi-\nvidual sondes of a given type and between items of ground equipment; (2)\ndifferences in station procedure, even for several stations using the same\ntype of equipment; (3) day-to-day changes in the albedo of Earth and cloud,\nwhich cause variations in the amount of reflected sunlight reaching the\nradiosonde; (4) synoptic changes; and (5) the true diurnal temperature varia-\ntion. Since it is impossible to separate out all these influences, or even\nto measure some of then precisely, it seems justifiable to combine them as\nfactors in the unexplained variability of observations.\nThe standard deviations o of (AT)i about the average of the monthly means\nfor all 10°-interval of daytime solar elevation angle have been calculated\n(for the 30-mb level). The results are shown in figure 13, where o is the\nresult of averaging the o's over all the intervals of daytime solar elevation\nangle. These results should be compared with those shown in figure 30 in\nthe paper by McInturff and Finger (1968). In the latter, it should be empha-\nsized, we dealt with average variances, for reasons given in the text. In\nthe present study, owing to a higher degree of automation in dataprocessing,\nit was easy enough to calculate the standard deviations in a more straight-\nforward fashion.\nFigure 13 contains many interesting features, but perhaps the most signifi-\ncant is the behavior of the French instrument in the country of its manufacture\nin comparison to its behavior overseas; and the analogous behavior of the\nVaisala instrument in the country of its manufacture (Finland) in comparison\nto its behavior in other countries. The utility of any posttransmission\nad justment is inversely proportional to the O-value associated with it.\n7","6. CONCLUDING REMARKS\nTables 3 to 19 summarize all the information from the scatter diagrams\nneeded for ad justments in rawinsonde-reported temperatures and geopotential\nheights of constant-pressure surfaces. In this form, they are easily incor-\nporated into programs for analyzing tropospheric and lower stratospheric\ndata. The greater need for adjustments at stratospheric levels is clearly\nin evidence.\nWe recommend that the adjustment system for upper-air data presented here\nbe applied only at analysis centers. Certainly it should not be applied as\na pretransmission correction scheme in any one country; this would make it\ndifficult to determine which stations require further adjustment and which\ndo not.\nACKNOWLEDGMENTS\nThe research reported in this paper was sponsored in part by the National\nAeronautics and Space Administration. Funds were also provided by the U. S.\nFGGE Project Office of the National Oceanic and Atmspheric Administration,\nU.S. Department of Commerce. The authors wish to express their gratitude to\nErvin B. Reid for his assistance with the calculations.\n8","REFERENCES\nBadgley, F. I., 1957: Response of radiosonde thermistors. Rev. Sci. Inst., ,\n28, pp. 1079-1084.\nFinger, F. G., R. M. McInturff, and E. A. Spackman, 1978: The compatibility\nof upper-air data. World Meteorological Organization, Technical Note No.\n163, WMO No. 512, Geneva, 103 pp.\nFinger, F. G. and R. M. McInturff, 1968: The diurnal temperature range of\nthe middle stratosphere. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 25, pp. 1116-\n1128.\nHawson, C. L. and P. Caton, 1961: A synoptic method for the international\ncomparison of geopotential observations. Meteorological Magazine, London,\n90, pp. 336-344.\nHayashi, E., Y. Sekiguchi, and A. Yada, 1956: On solar radiation error and\nits correction of Japanese radiosonde. Geophysical Magazine (Tokyo), 27,\npp. 361-375.\nMcInturff, R. M. and F. G. Finger, 1968: The compatibility of radiosonde\ndata at stratospheric levels over the Northern Hemisphere. Weather Bureau\nTechnical Memorandum WBTM DATAC 2, U.S. Department of Commerce, Silver\nSpring, Maryland, 61 pp.\nScrase, F. J., 1956: Application of radiation and lag corrections to temper-\natures measured with the Meteorological Office radiosonde. Meteorological\nMagazine, 85, pp. 65-75.\nSuzuki, S. and M. Asahi, 1978: Influence of solar radiation on temperature\nmeasurement before and after the change of the length of suspension used\nfor the Japanese radiosonde observation. J. Met. Soc. of Japan, 56, pp.\n61-64.\nTeweles, S. and F. G. Finger, 1960: Reduction of diurnal variation in the\nreported temperatures and heights of stratospheric constant-pressure\nsurfaces. J. Meteor., 17, pp. 177-194.\nWerbowetzki, A., 1975: Indirect sounding of the atmosphere from NOAA space-\ncraft -- regression after categorization method and results. Fourth\nConference on Probability and Statistics in Atmospheric Sciences, Talla-\nhassee, Florida, November 18-21, 1975, pp. 165-170.\n9","APPENDIX: COMPUTATION OF SOLAR ELEVATION ANGLE\nThe solar elevation angle a is calculated for the time at which the radio-\nsonde balloon passes through each mandatory level at 100 mb and above. It\nis found from the formula:\nsin a = sin 0 sin S + cos cos h cos S\nwhere is station latitude, s is solar declination angle, and h is solar\nhour angle. The angle S is obtained by 1\nsin s = sin (23°26'37.8\") sin o,\nwhere o is in degrees and is given by\no = 279.9348 + d + 1.914827 sin d - 0.079525 cos d\n+ 0.019938 sin 2d - 0.001620 cos 2d;\nd is the number of the day in the year minus one, multipled by the constant\n0.98565; e.g., for January 30, d = 29 X 0.98565. The solar hour angle h,\nthe angular (longitudinal) distance of the sun from the observation point,\ncan be expressed in terms of time of observation and longitude relative to\nGreenwich. The relation takes the form\nh (deg.) = 15 (C + H - M) - L\nwhere M, the time of meridian passage or true solar noon, is given by\nM (hr.) = 12 + 0.123570 sin 0 - 0.004289 cos d\n+ 0.153809 sin 2d + 0.060783 cos 2d,\nwith d as defined above; C (in hours) is a function of the difference between\nactual radiosonde release time and nominal observation time; and also of\nballoon ascent rate (table 25); H is nominal observation time, expressed as\nthe number of hours after 0000 GMT; L is longitude of station is degrees\nand tenths, counted positive west of Greenwich.\nSince station latitude and longitude are known, and solar declination\nangle and time of meridian passage can be determined with high precision,\nthe only source of uncertainty in the calculation of solar elevation angle\nis the time of radiosonde arrival at each mandatory level. As no indication\nof this parameter is given in the coded rawinsonde message, an approximate\nrelease time and ascent rate must be assumed. From an inspection of individ-\nual station records, \"normal\" release times, to the nearest quarter hour,\nand typical rates of ascent have been determined for North American stations.\nHowever, since these records are not available for most of the remaining\nstations in the Northern Hemisphere, a release time of 20 minutes prior to\nnominal observation time is utilized.\n1Relations involving s and o were derived from information provided by the\nU.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C.\n10","Table 1. --Types of radiosondes in use in the world. This representation can-\nnot be considered current, in view of the changes that are continually taking\nplace in the network.\nPretransmission\ncorrections applied?\nWhere employed\nInstrument type\nBrazil\nNo\nBendix-Friez duct-\nNo\ntype (403 NHz)\nIndonesia\nPeople's Republic\nUnknown\nChinese\nof China\nNo\nAustralia\nDiamond Hinman\nNew Zealand\nNo\nGerman Democratic\nNo\nFreiberg\nRepublic (09486 only)\nNo\nGraw M-60 -\nBelgium\nNo\nCongo\nYes\nFederal Republic\nof Germany\nNo\nMauritius\nUnknown\nZaire\nYes\nIndia\nIndian\nNo\nJapanese \"code-\nIndonesia\nYes\nsending\"\nJapan\nType RSII56\nYes\nKew (Mark IIB)\nCyprus\nYes\nGibraltar\nYes\nIreland\nYes\nMalta\nYes\nNetherlands\nYes\nUnited Kingdom\n11","Table 1 (continued)\nPretransmission\nInstrument type\nWhere employed\ncorrections applied?\nMesural\nAlgeria\nNo\nCentral African Empire\nNo\nChad\nNo\nFrance\nNo\nIvory Coast\nNo\nMali\nNo\nMadagascar\nUnknown\nMauritania\nNo\nMorocco\nNo\nNiger\nNo\nSenegal\nNo\nUnited Republic of\nNo\nCamoroon\nVietnam\nNo\nPakistani\nPakistan (41594, 41675,\nUnknown\n41756)\nSangamo\nCanada\nNo\nPortugal\nNo\nSwiss\nSwitzerland\nYes\nU.S.A. AN/AMT-4\nAustria\nNo\nBahamas\nNo\nBermuda\nNo\nEgypt\nNo\nGreece\nNo\nGreenland (04202 only)\nNo\nIceland\nNo\nItaly\nNo\nKorea (Republic of)\nNo\n(47138)\nNetherlands Antilles\nNo\nPakistan (41530 and\nNo\n41780 only)\nSpain\nNo\nTaiwan\nNo\nTurkey\nNo\nVietnam\nNo\nYugoslavia\nNo\n12","Table 1 (continued)\nPretransmission\ncorrections applied?\nWhere employed\nInstrument type\nUnknown\nAngola\nU.S.A. NOAA\nNo\nColombia\nNo\nCosta Rica\nCuba (Guantanamo Bay NAS)\nNo\nNo\nDominican Republic\nEgypt (62378 and 62414)\nNo\nGuadeloupe (France)\nNo\nNo\nGuam\nNo\nGuatemala\nNo\nHonduras\nNo\nIsrael\nNo\nJamaica\nKorea (Republic of)\nNo\nNo\nMexico\nUnknown\nMozambique\nNo\nNetherlands\nNo\nPanama\nPortugal (08509 only)\nNo\nSpain (08001 and 08302)\nNo\nNo\nTrinidad\nNo\nU.S.A.\nNo\nVenezuela\nNo\nAfghanistan\nU.S.S.R. A-22\nNo\nBulgaria\nYes\nCzechoslovakia\nYes\nHungary\nNo\nPoland (12425)\nNo\nRomania\nYes\nU.S.S.R.\nUnknown\nGerman Democratic\nU.S.S.R. RKZ\nRepublic\nUnknown\nHungary\nUnknown\nPoland (12330 and\n12374)\nYes\nU.S.S.R.\n13","Table 1 (continued)\nPretransmission\nInstrument type\nWhere employed\ncorrections applied?\nVaisälä\nArgentina\nYes\nBrazil\nUnknown\nBurma\nYes\nDenmark\nYes\nEthiopia\nYes\nFinland\nYes\nGreenland (except 04202)\nYes\nHong Kong\nYes\nIndonesia\nYes\nIraq\nYes\nIran\nYes\nJordan\nYes\nKenya\nYes\nLebanon\nYes\nLibya\nYes\nMalaysia\nYes\nNigeria\nUnknown\nNorway\nYes\nPhilippines\nYes\nSaudi Arabia\nYes\nSouth Africa\nYes\nSudan\nYes\nSweden\nYes\nSyria\nYes\nTanzania\nYes\nThailand\nYes\nTunisia\nYes\nUganda\nYes\nZambia\nYes\n14","as 100%\n850-mb\n100%\n82%\n1%\n100%\n62%\n5%\n100%\n60%\n100%\n71%\n3%\n100%\n79%\n19%\n100%\n83%\n9%\n100%\n77%\n15%\n12677\n10370\n134\n17865\n11028\n877\n5800\n595\n356\n23023\n16265\n586\n629\n2807\n2157\n423\nTotal\n3581\n2808\n661\n6990\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n101\n0\n0\n80-90\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n94\n47\n541\n53\n2\n70-80\n0\n0\n0\n63\n33\n0\n0\n0\n0\nTable 2.--Numbers of observed height differences\n0\n144\n8\n133\n0\n0\n116\n77\n1251\n436\n5\n60-70\n242\n145\n0\n282\n224\n0\n274\n214\n13\n835\n37\n712\n158\n0\n43\n84\n1766\n697\n4\n291\n50-60\n467\n224\n55\n631\n541\n33\n634\n477\n87\nSolar angle (degrees)\nINSUFFICIENT DATA\n3370\n35\n1617\n317\n42\n131\n81\n2333\n1762\n45\n943\n40-50\n750\n606\n192\n1521\n1292\n152\n526\n331\n127\n2375\n35\n2445\n1090\n75\n189\n48\n3559\n2436\n118\n4176\n30-40\n693\n567\n167\n1376\n1081\n471\n53\n111\n563\n19\n3150\n19\n3182\n1808\n156\n4372\n2715\n147\n2905\n1042\n153\n662\n578\n81\n22\n20-30\n824\n654\n147\n1192\n0\n4075\n3582\n119\n4190\n494\n0\n3916\n2878\n225\n1399\n142\n148\n86\n62\n0\n10-20\n605\n612\n99\n1592\n2850\n0\n0\n0\n0\n3625\n3368\n108\n172\n2\n0\n3227\n212\n0-10\n0\n0\n1\n333\n188\n38\n0\n0\n1400\n1216\n38\n0\n0\n0\n2633\n1927\n167\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n-10-0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\nJapanese \"code-sending\"\n(metropolitan France)\nU.S.S.R. A-22 (after-\nnoon daylight)\nFinnish Vaisälä\nInstrument type\nW. German Graw\nFrench Mesural\nFrench Mesural\n(overseas)\n100 mb\n10 mb\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb\nU.K. Kew\n100 mb\n10 mb\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb\n850 mb\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb\n850 mb\n100 nb\n10 mb\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb\n850 mb","as 100%\n850-mb\n100%\n88%\n17%\n100%\n69%\n4%\n100%\n96%\n18%\n100%\n47%\n3%\n100%\n197%\n36%\n100%\n64%\n14%\nTotal\n13604\n11936\n2343\n26819\n18498\n1093\n10133\n9757\n1855\n64331\n30505\n1911\n8340\n16439\n3009\n15600\n9938\n2240\n80-90\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n672\n94\n13\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n70-80\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0\n982\n450\n84\n27\n0\n0\n233\n58\n18\nTable 2.--Numbers of observed height differences (continued)\n60-70\n0\n0\n19\n279\n0\n0\n0\n0\n61\n1378\n746\n139\n188\n66\n0\n836\n548\n55\n50-60\n64\n257\n26\n1675\n297\n0\n45\n274\n123\n1818\n1517\n229\n279\n111\n7\n1878\n1102\n261\nSolar angle (degrees)\n40-50\n487\n444\n105\n3178\n1205\n22\n447\n648\n234\n4270\n1554\n236\n251\n156\n79\n1972\n1398\n541\n30-40\n839\n1151\n282\n4745\n2430\n160\n1222\n1150\n301\n8046\n2045\n118\n241\n586\n259\n2567\n2154\n539\n20-30\n1925\n1831\n468\n6426\n3299\n239\n1491\n1231\n337\n10798\n3248\n67\n427\n1388\n617\n3217\n2458\n574\n10-20\n2666\n2712\n576\n5870\n4682\n287\n2931\n2487\n414\n14319\n6296\n224\n764\n2878\n766\n3023\n1298\n217\n0-10\n3987\n2989\n527\n3183\n4207\n241\n2225\n2137\n305\n13022\n7830\n343\n1897\n5732\n810\n1351\n785\n19\n-10-0\n3636\n2552\n340\n1463\n2378\n144\n1772\n1830\n80\n9026\n6725\n458\n4266\n5522\n471\n523\n137\n16\nU.S.S.R. RKZ (afternoon\nU.S.S.R. A-22 (morning\nU.S.A. NOAA (afternoon\nU.S.S.R. RKZ (morning\nU.S.A. NOAA (morning\nInstrument type\nU.S.A. AN/AMT\ndaylight)\ndaylight)\ndaylight)\ndaylight)\ndaylight)\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb","as 100%\n850-mb\n100%\n61%\n100%\n68%\n100%\n80%\n4%\n22615\n10537\n8474\n415\nTotal\n4058\n2463\n33437\n0\n0\n0\n2\n80-90\n22\n17\n0\n0\n0\n37\n7\n70-80\n189\n72\n0\nTable 2. --Numbers of observed height differences (continued)\n0\n111\n108\n21\n60-70\n221\n254\n0\n0\n223\n94\n20\n50-60\n527\n638\n0\nSolar angle (degrees)\nINSUFFICIENT DATA\nINSUFFICIENT DATA\n170\n253\n132\n14\n40-50\n1059\n512\n0\n30-40\n3268\n847\n301\n65\n741\n343\n0\n885\n20-30\n484\n423\n2508\n5894\n471\n74\n10-20\n605\n204\n6965\n7159\n1603\n1488\n46\n4400\n2558\n2580\n86\n0-10\n149\n0\n15481\n-10-0\n61\n0\n8483\n1724\n4057\n3263\n80\n.\nAustralian \"Diamond\nInstrument type\nSangamo (Canada\nand Portugal)\nHinman\"\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb\n850 mb\n100 mb\n10 mb\nChinese","Table 3. .--W. German \"Graw\" instrument. Values of mean AT and mean AH as\nfunctions of mean daytime solar elevation angle and of pressure level. Units\nare degrees Celsius and meters. AT's are given on upper line, AH's on lower\nline. Values in italics are best estimates based on small samples.\nSolar\nPressure level (mb)\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n100\n50\n30\n20\n10\n-50\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n5°\nAT\n0.9\n1.0\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n17\n44\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n15°\nAT\n0.1\n0\n0\n0.1\n0.4\n0.6\n0.6\n0.5\n0.7\nAH\n-2\n-1\n-1\n0\n5\n11\n17\n23\n28\n25°\nAT\n-0.1\n-0.1\n0.1\n0.2\n0.5\n0.5\n0.6\n0.6\n0.3\nAH\n0\n1\n-1\n3\n12\n16\n23\n27\n38\n35\nAT\n0\n0\n0.3\n0.3\n0.6\n0.8\n0.6\n0.7\n-\nAH\n2\n2\n4\n4\n11\n13\n23\n25\n35\n450\nAT\n0.1\n0\n0.3\n0.4\n0.2\n0.1\n-0.1\n-0.2\n-\nAH\n3\n3\n6\n6\n13\n14\n11\n13\n10\n55°\nAT\n0\n0\n0.1\n0.3\n0.4\n0\n0.4\n-0.3\n-\nAH\n4\n2\n4\n6\n12\n18\n15\n19\n5\n65°\nAT\n-0.2\n0.2\n0\n0.2\n0.6\n0.5\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n3\n4\n5\n5\n17\n21\n-\n-\n-\n75°\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n18","Table 4.--U.K. Kew instrument. Values of mean AT and mean as functions\nof mean daytime solar elevation angle and of pressure level. Units are\ndegrees Celsius and meters. AT's are given on upper line, AH's on lower\nline. Values in italics are best estimates based on small samples\nPressure level (mb)\nSolar\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n100\n50\n30\n20\n10\n-5°\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n5°\n-0.1\n-0.2\n-1.0\n-0.5\n0.3\n3.2\nAT\n-0.3\n-0.2\n-0.2\nAH\n-3\n-5\n-8\n-9\n-12\n-20\n-31\n-39\n10\n15°\n0.4\n3.3\n-0.1\n0\n0\n-0.1\n0.1\n-0.3\n-0.1\nAT\n-1\n-3\n-14\n-18\n36\nAH\n-1\n-2\n-1\n-1\n0.3\n0.1\n0.8\n1.6\n4.3\n25°\n-0.1\n0\n0\n0\nAT\n-1\n-1\n1\n-2\n1\n3\n5\n27\n113\nAH\n0.2\n350\n0\n0\n0.2\n0\n-0.1\n0.3\n1.5\n3.3\nAT\n5\n24\n56\nAH\n-1\n-4\n-1\n3\n5\n-1\n2.8\n450\n-0.1\n0\n0.1\n0\n0\n-0.3\n0.1\n1.1\nAT\n-2\n11\n56\n-2\n-3\n-3\n-3\n0\n-5\n1.4\n55°\n-0.3\n0\n0.4\n0.8\nAT\n-0.1\n0\n0.1\n-0.2\n34\n-9\n-10\n2\n-2\n-2\n-3\n-4\n-1\n65\n-0.1\n0.3\n--0.1\nAT\n-0.1\n-0.1\n0\n0\n-\n-\n0\n1\n-2\n-2\n-5\n-4\n4\n-\n-\n75°\n-0.6\n-0.3\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-10\n-12\n-12\nAH\n-2\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n19","Table 5. -- French Mesural instrument used in Metropolitan France. Values of\nmean AT and mean as functions of mean daytime solar elevation angle and\nof pressure level. Units are degrees Celsius and meters. AT's are given on\nupper line, AH's on lower line.\nSolar\nPressure level (mb)\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n100\n50\n30\n20\n10\n-50\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n5°\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\no\n15\nAT\n0.3\n0.4\n0.3\n-0.1\n0.4\n0.9\n1.1\n1.2\n1.9\nAH\n4\n5\n7\n7\n16\n14\n4\n6\n10\no\n25\nAT\n0.2\n0.2\n0.2\n0.5\n0.6\n0.8\n1.2\n1.3\n2.2\nAH\n4\n6\n8\n12\n19\n29\n5\n7\n12\n350\nAT\n0.3\n0.3\n0.4\n0.5\n0.6\n0.8\n1.0\n1.8\n2.6\nAH\n4\n6\n11\n14\n23\n31\n5\n7\n10\n45°\nAT\n0.2\n0.6\n0.5\n-0.1\n0.3\n0.8\n1.3\n1.2\n3.2\nAH\n4\n9\n16\n21\n27\n34\n4\n7\n10\n55°\nAT\n0.2\n0.3\n0.3\n0.5\n0.6\n0.8\n1.1\n1.6\n1.1\nAH\n2\n1\n8\n11\n19\n27\n5\n6\n8\n65°\nAT\n-0.2\n0.2\n0.1\n0.2\n0.5\n1.2\n0.9\n1.8\n0.9\nAH\n2\n0\n3\n5\n7\n25\n4\n6\n14\n75°\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n20","Table 6.--French Mesural instrument, used outside France. Values of mean AT\nand mean AH as functions of mean daytime solar elevation angle and of pres-\nsure level. Units are degrees Celsius and meters. AT's are given on upper\nline, AH's on lower line. Values in italics are best estimates based on\nsmall samples.\nPressure level (mb)\nSolar\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n100\n50\n30\n20\n10\n-\n-5°\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\no\n5\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\no\n15\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\no\n6.2\n7.6\n11.4\n25\n0.8\n1.3\n2.3\n3.7\nAT\n0.5\n-\n13\n27\n40\n123\n288\n279\n510\nAH\n10\n-\n4.2\n6.6\n8.8\n35\n0.9\n2.2\n2.5\nAT\n0.6\n0.8\n-\n16\n8\n15\n27\n41\n105\nAH\n229\n333\n-\n2.4\n4.3\n5.1\n8.5\n45\n0.8\nAT\n0.9\n1.4\n5.5\n-\n60\n22\n323\n407\n'12\n8\n31\n36\n-\no\n5.1\n9.3\n4.9\n2.7\n0.4\n0.5\n0.7\n1.1\n55\nAT\n-\n46\n81\n96\n220\n314\nAH\n9\n19\n32\n-\no\n5.0\n65\nAT\n0.2\n0.5\n0.8\n7.6\n2.3\n3.7\n5.3\n-\n212\n54\n86\n102\n8\n12\n26\n31\nAH\n-\n75°\n2.4\n0.4\n0.6\n3.8\n1.2\nAT\n0\n-\n-\n-\n38\n8\n30\nAH\n1\n3\n8\n-\n-\n-\n21","Table 7. -- Finnish Väisälä instrument used both in Finland and several foreign\ncountries. Values of mean AT and mean AH as functions of mean daytime solar\nelevation angle and of pressure level. Units are degrees Celsius and meters.\nAT's are given on upper line, AH's on lower line. Values in italics repre-\nsent best estimates based on small samples.\nSolar\nPressure level (mb)\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n100\n50\n30\n20\n10\n-50\nAT\n-0.2\n0.2\n-0.1\n0\n0.1\n0.1\n0.1\n0.1\n2.6\nAH\n-2\n-2\n-5\n-3\n-2\n-6\n3\n0\n83\n5°\nAT\n0.1\n0.1\n0.1\n0.1\n0.3\n0.8\n2.0\n1.9\n3.1\nAH\n-1\n0\n1\n2\n4\n11\n28\n42\n83\n15°\nAT\n0.1\n0\n0.1\n0.1\n0.3\n1.0\n2.4\n2.4\n4.0\nAH\n1\n2\n4\n4\n7\n18\n37\n65\n127\n25°\nAT\n0.3\n0.1\n0.2\n0.1\n0.4\n1.0\n2.2\n2.0\n1.8\nAH\n3\n4\n6\n7\n12\n26\n43\n65\n91\n35°\nAT\n0.1\n0.2\n0.2\n0.2\n0.6\n1.2\n2.0\n2.0\n3.3\nAH\n6\n8\n11\n11\n18\n32\n55\n74\n77\n450\nAT\n0.2\n0.2\n0.3\n0.3\n0.5\n1.2\n1.5\n1.6\n1.4\nAH\n6\n8\n14\n15\n15\n30\n43\n48\n53\n55\nAT\n0.3\n0.3\n0.3\n0.5\n0.8\n1.0\n0.4\n0.4\n2.5\nAH\n9\n13\n16\n17\n30\n11\n29\n38\n73\n65°\nAT\n0.5\n0.4\n0.5\n0.6\n0.1\n1.3\n0.8\n0.1\n-\nAH\n8\n12\n17\n23\n37\n35\n29\n61\n-\n75°\nAT\n0.3\n0.6\n0.6\n0.6\n1.3\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n10\n14\n19\n23\n26\n-\n-\n-\n-\n85°\nAT\n0.2\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n10\n11\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n22","Table 8. --Vaisälä instrument used in Finland. Values of mean AT and mean AH\nas functions of mean daytime solar elevation angle and of pressure level.\nUnits are degrees Celsius and meters. AT's are given on upper line, AH's on\nlower line.\nPressure level (mb)\nSolar\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n100\n50\n10\n-5°\n-0.4\n0.3\n-0.1\n-0.1\n-0.3\n-0.1\n0.0\nAT\n- 5\n- 4\n- 3\n2\n2\n2\n12\n-\n-\n5°\n0.1\n0.2\n0.0\n0.1\n-0.1\n-0.2\n0.0\nAT\n8\n7\n0\n18\n- 23\nAH\n1\n0\n15\no\n0.1\n0.4\n0.2\n-0.2\n0.0\n0.0\n-0.4\nAT\nAH\n3\n4\n9\n6\n1\n7\n8\n25°\n0.1\n-0.2\n0.1\n-0.2\n-0.1\n0.1\n0.5\nAT\n7\nAH\n3\n4\n6\n8\n7\n14\no\n35\n0.1\n0.4\n0.1\n0.1\n0.0\n0.4\n0.2\nAT\n8\n21\n21\nAH\n4\n7\n10\n11\n45°\n0.1\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n10\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nNote: Data were insufficient above 30 mb for derivation of meaningful\nnumbers. Data were also insufficient for daytime solar elevation\nangles higher than 50°.\n23","Table 9. -Japanese \"code-sending\" instrument. Values of mean AT and mean\nAH\nas functions of mean daytime solar elevation angle and of pressure level.\nUnits are degrees Celsius and meters. AT's are given on upper line, AH's on\nlower line. Values in italics are best estimates based on small samples.\nSolar\nPressure level (mb)\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n100\n50\n30\n20\n10\n-5°\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n5°\nAT\n0.3\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n3\nAH\n-4\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n15\nAT\n0\n0.2\n0.6\n0.4\n0.7\n1.3\n2.6\n-\n-\nAH\n2\n4\n8\n13\n25\n43\n82\n-\n-\no\n25\nAT\n0.1\n0.3\n0.4\n0.6\n0.8\n1.2\n1.9\n3.0\n4.1\nAH\n3\n4\n10\n18\n28\n43\n70\n102\n173\n35\nAT\n0.2\n0.3\n0.3\n0.6\n0.7\n1.0\n1.6\n2.8\n3.5\nAH\n2\n5\n10\n15\n28\n44\n59\n90\n142\no\n45\nAT\n0.2\n0.4\n0.4\n0.4\n0.8\n0.8\n1.2\n1.9\n1.6\nAH\n2\n5\n11\n13\n26\n39\n53\n70\n94\n55\nAT\n0.2\n0.5\n0.5\n0.4\n0.8\n0.9\n1.1\n1.3\n1.8\nAH\n4\n7\n14\n17\n27\n31\n43\n60\n99\no\n65\nAT\n0.3\n0.7\n0.6\n0.5\n0.4\n0.2\n1.0\n1.4\n1.4\nAH\n10\n17\n20\n25\n35\n61\n84\n128\n-\no\n75\nAT\n0.1\n-0.5\n-1.0\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n28\n20\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n24","Table 10.--Afternoon daylight (123), U.S.S.R. A-22 instrument. Values of\nmean AT and mean AH as functions of mean daytime solar elevation angle of\npressure level. Units are degrees Celsius and meters. AT's are given on\nupper line, AH's on lower line. Values in italics are best estimates based\non small sample sizes.\nPressure level (mb)\nSolar\nElevation\nangle\n30\n20\n10\n200\n100\n50\n700\n500\n300\n(degrees)\n-0.2\n0.3\n0.2\n0.3\n0.1\n0.2\n0.2\n0.1\n-50\n0.1\nAT\n18\n27\n42\n14\n20\n5\n6\n7\nAH\n3\n0.2\n0.3\n0.5\n0.3\n0.5\n0.6\n5°\n0.3\n0.2\n0.3\nAT\n39\n39\n60\n14\n22\n30\n4\n6\n11\nAH\n2.5\n0.7\n0.8\n1.0\n15°\n0.3\n0.3\n0.2\n0.2\n0.4\nAT\n121\n12\n16\n33\n46\n63\n4\n8\n11\nAH\n0.1\n0.3\n0.7\n0.9\n0.3\n0.5\n250\n0.5\n0.3\n0.1\nAT\n84\n45\n54\n12\n20\n32\n6\n9\n11\nAH\n1.8\n0.9\n0.9\n1.2\n35°\n0.4\n0.1\n0.5\nAT\n0.2\n0.2\n80\n31\n44\n62\n7\n9\n13\n15\n23\nAH\n1.0\n0.2\n0.3\n0.6\n0.5\n45°\n0.4\n0\n0.2\n0.2\nAT\n28\n11\n16\n18\n17\n13\n8\n10\n15\nAH\n0.2\n0.4\n0.8\n0.2\n-0.2\n0\n55°\n0.1\n0.3\n-\nAT\n-14\n8\n14\n12\n12\n5\n9\n11\n-\nAH\n0.4\n0.1\n0\n-\n650\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n6\n5\n11\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n75°\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n25","Table 11.--Morning daylight (00Z), U.S.S.R. A-22 instrument. Values of mean\nAT and mean AH as functions of mean daytime solar elevation angle and of\npressure level. Units are degrees Celsius and meters. AT's are given on\nupper line, AH's on lower line.\nSolar\nPressure level (mb)\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n100\n50\n30\n20\n10\nAT\n0\n-0.1\n0\n0\n-5°\n0\n-0.1\n-0.2\n-0.1.\n0.1\nAH\n-4\n-5\n-4\n-5\n-6\n-7\n-9\n-10\n-16\nAT\n0.1\n0\no\n0\n0.2\n0.2\n0.3\n0.4\n0.6\n0.9\n5\n-3\n-3\n-5\n-4\n-1\n8\n11\n18\n18\nAT\n0\n0\n0\n0.1\n0.2\n0.5\n0.6\n0.9\n1.9\n15\n-2\n-3\n-3\n-4\n1\n5\n13\n25\n51\nAT\n-0.1\n-0.1\n0.2\n0.2\n0.3\n0.5\n0.5\n0.9\n2.8\n25\nAH\n0\n-2\n-2\n-4\n2\n11\n20\n22\n56\nAT\n0\n0\n0.1\no\n0.2\n0.5\n0.8\n0.7\n1.1\n0.5\n35\nAH\n1\n0\n2\n3\n8\n17\n19\n33\n48\nAT\n-0.1\n0\n0.2\no\n-0.1\n0.1\n0.5\n0.6\n1.2\n2.3\n45\nAH\n-1\n0\n-3\n-5\n-3\n11\n16\n32\n38\nAT\n-0.2\n-0.2\n0.1\n-0.2\no\n0.3\n0.3\n0.4\n0.9\n2.4\n55\nAH\n-3\n-5\n-3\n-7\n-8\n0\n5\n14\n57\nAT\no\n0.3\n-0.6\n65\nAH\n-10\n-11\no\n75\n26","Table 12. -- --Afternoon daylight (12Z), U.S.S.R. RKZ instrument. Values of mean\nAT and mean AH as functions of mean daytime solar elevation and of pressure\nlevel. Units are degrees Velsius and meters. AT's are given on upper line,\nAH's on lower line.\nSolar\nPressure level (mb)\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n100\n50\n30\n20\n10\n-50\nAT\n0.1\n0\n0.1\n0.2\n0.2\n0.5\n0.7\n0.8\n1.8\nAH\n5\n5\n6\n7\n15\n29\n44\n55\n82\n5°\nAT\n0.2\n0.2\n0.4\n0.3\n0.5\n0.8\n1.0\n1.1\n2.8\nAH\n5\n7\n13\n20\n28\n42\n54\n67\n120\n15\nAT\n0.3\n0.3\n0.3\n0.4\n0.5\n0.7\n0.9\n1.1\n1.7\nAH\n6\n10\n16\n18\n25\n35\n44\n53\n73\n25\nAT\n0.3\n0.3\n0.3\n0.2\n0.2\n0.5\n0.7\n0.6\n0.5\nAH\n7\n10\n15\n18\n21\n30\n35\n38\n59\n35°\nAT\n0.3\n0.3\n0.3\n0.3\n0.1\n0.2\n0.4\n0.6\n0.5\nAH\n7\n10\n14\n17\n20\n23\n28\n34\n22\n45°\n0.3\nAT\n0.3\n0.4\n0.2\n0\n0.3\n0.2\n0.1\n0\nAH\n8\n10\n15\n18\n18\n15\n12\n18\n8\n550\nAT\n0.1\n0.2\n0.2\n0\n0\n0.3\n-0.2\n-\n-\nAH\n6\n8\n11\n12\n12\n10\n10\n-\n-\n65°\nAT\n0.1\n0.1\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n7\n5\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n75°\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n27","Table 13.--Morning daylight (00Z), U.S.S.R. RKZ instrument. Values of mean\nAT and mean AH as functions of mean daytime solar elevation angle and of\npressure level. Units are degrees Celsius and meters. AT's are given on\nupper line, AH's on lower line.\nPressure level (mb)\nSolar\nelevation\nangle\n100\n50\n30\n20\n10\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n-5°\n0.1\n0.2\n0.5\n0\n-0.1\n0\n0.1\nAT\n-0.2\n0\n-7\n-8\n-8\n-8\n-9\n-10\n-14\n-20\n0\nAH\n0.3\n0.4\n0.7\n0.9\n1.5\n5°\n0.1\n0\n0\n0.1\nAT\n28\n-4\n-3\n-5\n-5\n-1\n6\n14\n16\no\n0.1\n0.3\n0.5\n0.6\n0.9\n1.7\n15\n0\n0\n0.2\nAT\n14\n23\n36\n-3\n-3\n-3\n-2\n0\n8\nAH\n1.8\n25°\n0.2\n0.2\n0.3\n0.6\n-0.1\n-0.1\n0.1\n0.4\nAT\n18\n26\n-4\n-3\n-1\n1\n6\n12\nAH\n-2\n0.1\n0.3\n1.6\n35°\n-0.3\n-0.1\n0\n0.1\n0.1\n0.1\nAT\n-3\n-4\n-5\n-6\n1\n1\n-1\n3\n27\nAH\n45°\n0.1\n0\n0.1\n0\n0.1\n0.5\n-0.3\n-0.1\n0.1\nAT\n17\n-4\n-4\n-4\n-6\n-5\n-6\n-1\n2\nAH\n-0.1\n0.3\n0.1\n55°\n-0.3\n-0.3\n-0.1\n-0.1\n0.2\n0.1\nAT\n-15\n-17\n-25\n-4\n-2\n-4\n-5\n-8\n-11\nAH\n-0.2\n0.2\n0.9\n65°\n0\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n75°\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n28","Table 14. - Afternoon daylight (00Z), U.S. NOAA instrument. Values of mean\nAT and mean AH as functions of mean daytime solar elevation angle and of\npressure level. Units are degrees Celsius and meters. AT's are given on\nupper line, AH's on lower line. Values in italics are based on small sample\nsizes, but nevertheless are reasonable estimates.\nSolar\nPressure level (mb)\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n100\n50\n30\n20\n10\n-50\nAT\n0.2\n0.2\n0.2\n0.1\n0.2\n0.5\n0.9\n1.2\n1.9\nAH\n1\n3\n7\n9\n15\n27\n46\n70\n116\n5°\nAT\n0.3\n0.3\n0.4\n0.5\n0.7\n1.1\n1.6\n1.9\n2.4\nAH\n1\n4\n11\n16\n30\n49\n74\n100\n143\n15°\nAT\n0.5\n0.4\n0.6\n0.6\n0.9\n1.3\n1.8\n2.3\n2.9\nAH\n3\n8\n16\n24\n38\n60\n88\n116\n178\n25°\nAT\n0.6\n0.5\n0.6\n0.7\n1.0\n1.4\n2.1\n2.6\n3.2\nAH\n7\n12\n21\n27\n42\n66\n98\n132\n175\n35\nAT\n0.6\n0.5\n0.6\n0.7\n1.0\n1.4\n1.9\n2.4\n2.6\nAH\n9\n13\n21\n27\n40\n65\n94\n129\n172\n450\nAT\n0.3\n0.4\n0.5\n0.6\n1.0\n1.2\n1.4\n1.8\n2.8\nAH\n6\n8\n15\n19\n35\n56\n88\n107\n158\n55°\nAT\n0.4\n0.4\n0.5\n0.7\n1.0\n1.1\n1.4\n1.5\n2.3\nAH\n4\n7\n11\n19\n34\n49\n71\n100\n132\n65\nAT\n0.5\n0.5\n0.5\n0.7\n1.0\n1.3\n1.0\n1.3\n2.5\nAH\n3\n8\n15\n22\n36\n49\n65\n95\n134\n75°\nAT\n0.5\n0.5\n0.5\n0.7\n1.2\n1.0\n1.6\n1.3\n1.1\nAH\n3\n8\n13\n22\n49\n34\n72\n106\n151\n85°\n0.4\nAT\n0.6\n0.6\n0.8\n1.0\n0.9\n1.2\n2.2\n3.2\n1\nAH\n6\n12\n18\n20\n42\n80\n94\n-13\n29","Table 15.--Morning daylight (12Z), U.S. NOAA instrument. Values of mean AT\n(upper line) and of mean AH (lower line) as functions of mean daytime solar\nelevation angle and of pressure level. Units are degrees Celsius and meters.\nValues in italics are besed on small sample sizes, but nevertheless are\nreasonable estimates.\nPressure level (mb)\nSolar\nelevation\nangle\n20\n10\n100\n50\n30\n500\n300\n200\n(degrees)\n700\n-0.2\n0\n0.1\n0\n-0.1\n-0.2\n0\n-50\nAT\n-0.2\n-0.2\n-8\n-8\n-9\n-14\n-20\n-39\nAH\n-3\n-5\n-7\n5°\n0.5\n0.5\n0.6\n0.8\n1.3\n-0.1\n.0\n0.2\nAT\n-0.1\n-7\n-6\n-4\n1\n5\n7\n4\nAH\n-2\n-5\n1.0\n1.1\n1.3\n15°\n0.5\n0.7\n0.7\n0.2\n0.2\n0.2\nAT\n12\n18\n25\n29\n30\n0\n2\n2\n3\nAH\n1.1\n25°\n0.4\n0.4\n0.2\n0.4\n0.7\n0.9\n1.1\n1.1\nAT\n8\n17\n31\n34\n39\n44\n5\n7\n7\nAH\n35°\n0.8\n1.1\n1.4\n1.5\n1.3\n0.5\n0.4\n0.4\n0.8\nAT\n36\n44\n64\n71\n17\n18\n23\n10\n13\nAH\n1.9\n1.3\n1.2\n45°\n0.4\n0.5\n0.7\n1.5\n1.2\n1.4\nAT\n102\n59\n24\n23\n29\n50\n59\n8\n9\nAH\n3.5\n1.0\n2.2\n1.3\n1.0\n1.2\n1.0\n1.6\n55\n0.8\nAT\n107\n54\n119\n18\n29\n40\n70\n181\n9\nAH\n1.1\n0.9\n1.0\n1.5\n-0.4\n65°\n0.9\n0.9\nAT\n77\n47\n32\n40\n32\n20\n26\nAH\n30","Table 16. -AN/AMT 4 instrument, used in various parts of the world. Values\nof mean AT and mean AH as functions of mean daytime solar elevation angle\nand of pressure level. Units are degrees Celsius and meters. AT's are\ngiven on upper line, AH's on lower line. Values in italics are best esti-\nmates based on small samples.\nSolar\nPressure level (mb)\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n100\n50\n30\n20\n10\n-5°\nAT\n-0.1\n-0.5\n-0.2\n0\n-0.1\n0.2\n0.8\n1.5\n-\nAH\n-1\n-1\n-6\n-9\n-11\n-18\n36\n107\n-\n5\nAT\n0\n-0.1\n0.1\n0.5\n0.4\n0.8\n1.2\n1.7\n1.4\n-1\n-1\n-1\n1\n6\n17\n48\n78\n69\no\n15\nAT\n0\n0\n0.4\n0.6\n0.8\n0.8\n1.7\n1.8\n2.9\n3\n2\n5\n11\n22\n31\n50\n69\n109\n25\nAT\n0.2\n0.2\n0.4\n0.5\n0.8\n1.1\n1.4\n1.8\n1.7\nAH\n3\n4\n8\n13\n26\n43\n56\n76\n109\n35\nAT\n0.3\n0.4\n0.5\n0.5\n0.9\n1.1\n1.8\n1.6\n2.0\nAH\n5\n7\n13\n17\n28\n42\n68\n91\n119\n45\nAT\n0.3\n0.3\n0.4\n0.4\n0.9\n1.1\n1.5\n1.7\n2.5\nAH\n4\n9\n16\n21\n36\n49\n67\n90\n136\no\n55\nAT\n0.3\n0.4\n0.5\n0.6\n1.0\n1.4\n1.7\n1.7\n2.7\nAH\n5\n8\n13\n20\n33\n52\n77\n97\n144\no\n65\nAT\n0.2\n0.4\n0.6\n0.7\n0.8\n1.5\n1.8\n1.6\n2.3\nAH\n5\n9\n15\n16\n33\n55\n43\n72\n128\n75\nAT\n0.1\n0.3\n0.5\n0.6\n0.9\n1.2\n1.9\n-\n-\nAH\n6\n5\n4\n15\n30\n53\n89\n-\n-\n31","Table 17. -- Australian (\"Diamond Hinman\") instrument, used also in New\nZealand. Values of mean AT and mean AH as functions of mean daytime solar\nelevation angle and of pressure level. Units are degrees Celsius and\nmeters. AT's are given on upper line, AH's on lower line. Values in\nitalics are best estimates based on small samples.\nPressure level (mb)\nSolar\nelevation\nangle\n200\n100\n50\n30\n20\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n-50\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n5°\n0.3\n0\n0\n0.2\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-3\n-2\n-5\n-3\n-\n-\n-\n-\n1.8\n15°\nAT\n0\n0.2\n0.2\n0.4\n0.6\n0.9\n0.8\n1\n3\n9\n17\n36\n55\nAH\n0\n-\n1.7\n25°\nAT\n0.3\n0.1\n0.2\n0.4\n0.8\n1.0\n1.7\n44\n52\nAH\n3\n5\n7\n9\n19\n-\n1.6\n35°\nAT\n0.2\n0.2\n0.2\n0.5\n0.7\n1.1\n1.7\n168\nAH\n31\n52\n4\n6\n8\n9\n19\n450\n0.3\n0.6\n0.9\n1.3\n1.7\n2.8\nAT\n0.1\n0.2\n100\n59\nAH\n2\n4\n9\n11\n24\n41\n550\n0.2\n0.5\n1.0\n1.1\n1.8\n2.2\nAT\n0.3\n0.4\n78\n9\n25\n44\n61\nAH\n2\n5\n3\n0.6\n65\n0.7\n0.5\n0.2\n1.1\n1.4\n1.4\n1.7\nAT\n100\nAH\n4\n3\n12\n22\n32\n48\n67\n1.4\n75°\n0.5\n1.0\n1.4\n2.4\nAT\n0.3\n0.4\n0.1\nAH\n1\n2\n5\n14\n35\n10\n48\n-\n0.9\n0.8\n85°\n0.4\n-0.3\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n2\n4\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n32","Table 18.--Canadian \"Sangamo\" instrument. Values of mean AT and mean AH as\nfunctions of mean daytime solar elevation angle and of pressure level. Units\nare degrees Celsius and meters. AT's are given on upper line, AH's on lower\nline. Values in italics represent best estimates based on small samples.\nSolar\nPressure level (mb)\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n700\n500\n300\n200\n100\n50\n30\n20\n10\n-5°\nAT\n0\n0\n0\n0\n0.1\n0.1\n0.4\n0.5\n1.5\nAH\n-1\n-1\n-1\n0\n1\n3\n13\n22\n68\n5°\n0.1\nAT\n0\n0.2\n0.4\n0.6\n0.8\n1.1\n1.4\n1.9\nAH\n1\n2\n3\n7\n14\n23\n37\n53\n91\n15°\n0.4\nAT\n0.3\n0.4\n0.4\n0.7\n1.1\n1.3\n1.4\n1.3\nAH\n4\n7\n17\n17\n28\n39\n49\n55\n65\n25°\nAT\n0.4\n0.5\n0.5\n0.5\n0.7\n0.9\n1.4\n1.4\n1.2\nAH\n8\n13\n18\n27\n26\n37\n48\n66\n74\n35°\n0.5\nAT\n0.3\n0.7\n0.6\n0.9\n1.2\n1.2\n1.3\n2.2\nAH\n9\n14\n19\n25\n27\n44\n49\n62\n90\n45°\nAT\n0.2\n0.1\n0.5\n0.2\n0.8\n1.1\n1.0\n1.0\n0.4\n6\nAH\n2\n8\n18\n32\n50\n62\n83\n71\n55°\nAT\n-0.1\n0.3\n0.5\n0.6\n1.3\n0.7\n0.8\n1.4\n1.7\nAH\n-2\n-1\n0\n9\n31\n19\n45\n95\n98\n65°\nAT\n-0.3\n0.1\n0.6\n0.9\n1.0\n0.9\n1.3\n1.4\n1.0\nAH\n-2\n-2\n3\n11\n22\n36\n54\n71\n102\n75°\nAT\n-0.1\n1.0\n0.8\n1.7\n1.6\n1.3\n1.2\n-\n-\nAH\n65\n1\n18\n22\n42\n63\n116\n-\n-\n33","Table 19.--Chinese instrument. Values of mean AT and mean as functions\nof mean daytime solar elevation angle and of pressure level. Units are\ndegrees Celsius and meters. AT's are given on upper line, AH's on lower\nline. Values in italics are best estimates based on small samples.\nPressure level (mb)\nSolar\nelevation\nangle\n(degrees)\n200\nHigher levels missing\n700\n500\n300\n100\n-50\n-0.2\n0.1\n0\n0.1\n0\nAT\n-3\n-2\n-5\n1\nAH\n-1\n5°\n-0.4\n-0.2\nAT\n-0.2\n-0.1\n-0.4\nAH\n-1\n-2\n-7\n-12\n-16\n15°\nAT\n-0.1\n-0.1\n-0.5\n-0.3\n0\nAH\n0\n-1\n-5\n-11\n-15\n25°\n-0.1\n0\n-0.6\n-0.2\n0.1\nAT\nAH\n1\n0\n-2\n-9\n-13\n35°\n-0.4\n-0.3\n-0.4\n0.4\nAT\n-\n2\n-6\n-4\nAH\n2\n-\n45°\n0.6\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-8\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n55°\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n650\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n75°\nAT\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\nAH\n-\n-\n-\n-\n-\n34","or\n.OT\nt\nx\nt\nD\nof\nO\n*\n*\nx\n$\n0\nx\nC\n*\n*\nDEN\nV\n0\nP\n601\nO\nDO\n150\n160\n170\n*\n150\n160\n170\nto\n180\n170\n160\nFigure 1.--Distribution of radiosonde instrument types throughout the North-\nern Hemisphere, as of July 1978. (This representation cannot be considered\ncurrent because changes are continually taking place in the network.)\n35","WEATHER PLOTTING CHART\nKEY\nGRAW\nMESURAL\nDIAMOND HINMAN\nJAPANESE\nBENDIX-FRIEZ\nU.K. KEW\nVAISALA\nU.S.S.R.\nUNKNOWN\nV\nU.S.A. NOAA\nLi\nx\n$\nO\nor\nFigure 2.--Distribution of radiosonde instrument types over the Southern\nHemisphere, as of July 1978. (Same caveat as for figure 1.)\n36","00\nx\nx\nx\nDAYLIGHT\nDARKNESS\nobservations) Figure 3. -Yearly at 10 migration mb. of 0100 GMT sunrise line (for nominal\n0000\nGMT\n37","08\nI\nDARKNESS\nDAYLIGHT\nGMT\n38","DATA PROCESSING--DAY/NIGH DIFFERENCES\nMERGE 00Z AND 12Z COLLECTIVES\nINTO MONTHLY FILES\nSORT MONTHLY FILES BY STATION\nSTORED STATION-MONTH STATISTICS:\n1. MEANS & STANDARD DEVIATION OF H,T\nAND OF CONSECUTIVE DIFFERENCES\n2. SCREEN AT 2; RE-CALCULATE\nSTATISTICS\n3. MEAN SOLAR ANGLES--15TH OF MONTH\nOUTPUT OPTIONS:\n1. SUMMARIES BASED ON INSTRUMENT,\nSTATION(S), BLOCK(S)\n2. PLOTS (MONTHLY DIFFERENCES VERSUS\nSOLAR ANGLE)\nFigure 5. -- Flow diagram for scheme of calculating day-night differences of\ntemperatures and of geopotential heights.\n39","Figure 6 .--Scatter diagram of AT for the U.S. NOAA instrument (also known as\nthe manufacturer' S name VIZ) for 200 mb.\n40","Figure 7 --Scatter diagram of AT for the Mesural instrument used in metropoli-\ntan France, 150-mb level\n41","Figure 8. --Scatter diagram of AT for the Mesural instrument used outside\nFrance, 150-mb level.\n42","SH\nFigure 9 -- -Scatter diagram of AT for the instrument used by the People's\nRepublic of China, 100-mb level\n43","or\nFigure 10. - -Scatter diagram of AT for the West German radiosonde , 30-mb level.\n44","Figure 11 ,--Scatter diagram of AT for the Japanese \"code sending\" radiosonde,\n30-mb level\n45","TEMPERATURES\n10 MB. LEVEL SUNLIGHT\n00Z\nINSTRUMENT TYPE\n20\n430\n+70\n+80\n+90\n+50\n+60\n+10\nSOLAR ELEVATION ANGLE\n11\n9\n7\n6\n00\n8\n2\n8\nFigure 12 -- --Scatter diagram of AT for the U.S. NOAA (VIZ) instrument , 10-mb\nlevel.\n46","AUSTRALIA\nU.S.A. AM/AMT\n(a.m.)\nU.S.A. NOAA\n(p.m.)\nU.S.A. NOAA\n(a.m.)\nU.S.S.R. RKZ\n(p.m.)\nU.S.S.R. RKZ\n(a.m.)\nU.S.S.R. A-22\n(p.m.)\nU.S.S.R. A-22\nof\nJAPAN\ndeclarations\nFINLAND\nstandard\nVAISALA (all)\n(overseas)\nFRENCH\n(metropolitan)\nFRENCH\nU.K. KEW\nFigure\nGRAW M-60\n2.5\"\n2.0 -\n91\nL7\nE-I 6461 'S'n*","(Continued from inside front cover)\nNOAA Technical Memorandums\nNWS NMC 49\nA Study of Non-Linear Computational Instability for a Two-Dimensional Model. Paul D.\nPolger, February 1971, 22 pp. (COM-71-00246)\nNWS NMC 50\nRecent Research in Numerical Methods at the National Meteorological Center. Ronald D.\nMcPherson, April 1971, 35 pp. (COM-71-00595)\nNWS NMC 51\nUpdating Asynoptic Data for Use in Objective Analysis. Armand J. Desmarais, December\n1972, 19 pp. (COM-73-10078)\nNWS NMC 52 Toward Developing a Quality Control System for Rawinsonde Reports. Frederick G. Finger\nand Arthur R. Thomas, February 1973, 28 pp. (COM-73-10673)\nNWS NMC 53\nA Semi-Implicit Version of the Shuman-Hovermale Model. Joseph P. Gerrity, Jr. Ronald D.\nMcPherson, and Stephen Scolnik, July 1973, 44 pp. (COM-73-11323)\nNWS NMC 54\nStatus Report on a Semi-Implicit Version of the Shuman-Hovermale Model. Kenneth Campana,\nMarch 1974, 22 pp. (COM-74-11096/AS)\nNWS NMC 55\nAn Evaluation of the National Meteorological Center's Experimental Boundary Layer model.\nPaul D. Polger, December 1974, 16 pp. (COM-75-10267/AS)\nNWS NMC 56\nTheoretical and Experimental Comparison of Selected Time Integration Methods Applied to\nFour-Dimensional Data Assimilation. Ronald D. McPherson and Robert E. Kistler, April\n1975, 62 pp. (COM-75-10882/AS)\nNWS NMC 57\nA Test of the Impact of NOAA-2 VTPR Soundings on Operational Analyses and Forecasts.\nWilliam D. Bonner, Paul L. Lemar, Robert J. Van Haaren, Armand J. Desmarais, and Hugh M.\nO'Neil, February 1976, 43 pp. (PB-256-075)\nNWS NMC 58\nOperational-Type Analyses Derived Without Radiosonde Data from NIMBUS 5 and NOAA 2 Temp-\nerature Soundings. William D. Bonner, Robert van Haaren, and Christopher M. Hayden, March\n1976, 17 PP. (PB-256-099)\nNWS NMC 59\nDecomposition of a Wind Field on the Sphere. Clifford H. Dey and John A. Brown, Jr.\nApril 1976, 13 pp. (PB-265-422)\nNWS NMC 60\nThe LFM Model 1976: A Documentation. Joseph P. Gerrity, Jr., December 1977, 68 PP. (PB-\n279-419)\nNWS NMC 61\nSemi-Implicit Higher Order Version of the Shuman-Hovermale Model. Kenneth A. Campana,\nApril 1978, 55 pp. (PB-286-012)\nNWS NMC 62\nAddition of Orography to the Semi-Implicit Version of the Shuman-Hovermale Model. Kenneth\nA. Campana, April 1978, 17 pp. (PB-286-009)","NOAA SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS\nThe National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration was established as part of the Department of\nCommerce on October 3, 1970. The mission responsibilities of NOAA are to assess the socioeconomic impact\nof natural and technological changes in the environment and to monitor and predict the state of the solid Earth,\n8398\nthe oceans and their living resources, the atmosphere, and the space environment of the Earth.\nThe major components of NOAA regularly produce various types of scientific and technical informa-\ntion in the following kinds of publications:\nPROFESSIONAL PAPERS - Important definitive\nTECHNICAL SERVICE PUBLICATIONS - Re-\nresearch results, major techniques, and special inves-\nports containing data, observations, instructions, etc.\ntigations.\nA partial listing includes data serials; prediction and\noutlook periodicals; technical manuals, training pa-\npers, planning reports, and information serials; and\nCONTRACT AND GRANT REPORTS - Reports\nprepared by contractors or grantees under NOAA\nmiscellaneous technical publications.\nsponsorship.\nTECHNICAL REPORTS - Journal quality with\nextensive details, mathematical developments, or data\nATLAS - Presentation of analyzed data generally\nlistings.\nin the form of maps showing distribution of rainfall,\nTECHNICAL MEMORANDUMS - Reports of\nchemical and physical conditions of oceans and at-\npreliminary, partial, or negative research or technol-\nmosphere, distribution of fishes and marine mam-\nogy results, interim instructions, and the like.\nmals, ionospheric conditions, etc.\nATMOSPHERIC\nAND\nNOAA\nOF\nInformation on availability of NOAA publications can be obtained from:\nENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE INFORMATION CENTER (D822)\nENVIRONMENTAL DATA AND INFORMATION SERVICE\nNATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION\nU.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE\n6009 Executive Boulevard\nRockville, MD 20852\nNOAA--S/T 79-259"]}*