{"Bibliographic":{"Title":"Atlas of Southern Hemisphere 500 mb teleconnection patterns derived from National Meteorological Center analyses","Authors":"","Publication date":"1992","Publisher":""},"Administrative":{"Date created":"08-20-2023","Language":"English","Rights":"CC 0","Size":"0000073583"},"Pages":["G\n1046\nC8\nNOAA ATLAS No. 9\n06\nno.9\nno..\nAtlas of Southern Hemisphere\nENT\nOF\nCOMMUNITY\n500 mb Teleconnection\nPatterns Derived from National\nSTATES OF ANGELES\nMeteorological Center Analyses\nCamp Springs, Md.\nMarch 1992\nU.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE\nNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\nNational Weather Service","G\n046\n,C8\nNOAA ATLAS No. 9\n46\n9\nATMOSPHERIC\nAND\nAtlas of Southern Hemisphere\nDESCRIPTION\nNOAA\n500 mb Teleconnection\nPatterns Derived from National\nOF\nMeteorological Center Analyses\nVernon E. Kousky, Gerald D. Bell\nClimate Analysis Center\nNational Meteorological Center\nNational Weather Service\nCamp Springs, MD.\nMarch 1992\nLIBRARY\nAPR 1 7 1992\nN.O.A.A.\nU.S.\nDept.\nof\nCommerce\nU.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE\nRockwell A. Schnabel, Acting Secretary\nNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\nDr. John A. Knauss, Under Secretary\nNational Weather Service\nDr. Elbert W. Friday, Jr. Assistant Administrator","Table of Contents\nPage\nAbstract\n1\n1. Introduction\n1\n2. Data and Analysis\n2\n3. Climatological Fields\n2\n4. Discussion\n5\n5. Acknowledgments\n7\n6. References\n7\n7. Figures\na. Monthly climatology maps\n9\nb. Winter (May - September)\ni. Summary table\n15\nii. Teleconnectivity Map\n16\niii. One-point Teleconnection Maps\n17\nC. Summer (November - March)\ni. Summary table\n53\nii. Teleconnectivity Map\n54\niii. One-point Teleconnection Maps\n55","Atlas of Southern Hemisphere 500 mb Teleconnection Patterns\nDerived from National Meteorological Center Analyses\nABSTRACT\nAn atlas of teleconnection patterns, based on monthly\nmean 500 mb geopotential height anomalies, is presented\nfor the Southern Hemisphere. Height anomalies are\ncomputed with respect to the 1979-1988 base period\nmonthly means for a 10 degree latitude by 10 degree\nlongitude grid. These anomalies then serve as the basis\nfor a point correlation analysis for the Southern\nHemisphere winter (May - September) and summer (November\n- March) seasons.\n1. INTRODUCTION\nWith the establishment of the South American Desk within the\nMeteorological Operations Division of the National Meteorological\nCenter (NMC) increased attention has been given to model\nforecasts in the Southern Hemisphere. As forecasting experience\nhas increased so has the demand for climatological information on\nSouthern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns. Having found the\nteleconnection atlas of Namias (1981) extremely useful in\ninterpreting Northern Hemisphere anomaly patterns, forecasters\nsought a similar atlas for the Southern Hemisphere. This work is\nan attempt to meet their needs.\nThe discussion is organized such that data and analysis\ntechniques are described in section 2. A synoptic description of\nthe climatological mean 500 mb circulation features is then\npresented in section 3. Features which exhibit little seasonal\nvariability, as well as features which exhibit pronounced\nseasonal variability, are described in this section. It should\nbe noted that this synoptic discussion is designed exclusively\nto provide the forecaster with a \"quick-look\" at the key\nclimatological mean mid-tropospheric circulation features, upon\nwhich the subsequent teleconnection patterns are superimposed.\nThe primary one-point teleconnection patterns are then described\nin section 4.\nThe maps are organized such that monthly climatological mean\n(1979-1988) 500 mb height fields are presented first. These\nanalyses highlight mean jet positions, mean trough and ridge\npositions, and regions of strong flow diffluence/confluence.\nRegions of large height field variability are also identified on\nthe analyses. The winter (May - September) one-point\ncorrelation patterns are then presented, followed by the summer\n(November - March) one-point correlation patterns. Correlation\n1","patterns were also computed using three-month seasons. Those\npatterns (not shown) are, in most cases, quite similar to the\nones shown here for five-month seasons.\nBoth a summarization table and a teleconnectivity map\n(Wallace and Gutzler 1981) immediately precede the correlation\npatterns for each season. The tables summarize the primary\nstructural characteristics of the teleconnection patterns for the\ngiven season. The teleconnectivity maps identify the base points\nwhich are associated with the strongest teleconnection patterns.\nBoth the tables and the teleconnectivity maps provide the basis\nfor a descriptive summary of the major Southern Hemisphere\nteleconnection patterns in section 4.\n2. DATA AND ANALYSIS\nThe one point correlation patterns are based on the monthly\nfinal analyses of 500 mb geopotential height obtained from the\nNMC global data assimilation system (GDAS) for the period 1979-\n1990. During this period changes were made in the GDAS which\ngreatly affected geopotential height analyses in the vicinity of\nmountainous terrain. Consequently, the derived patterns should\nnot be considered true teleconnection patterns for points in the\nvicinity of elevated topography (e. g. over subtropical South\nAmerica and the adjacent South Atlantic, over eastern Africa and\nover Indonesia) .\nCorrelations are computed using the height anomaly time\nseries at each point for a 10 degree latitude by 10 degree\nlongitude grid. Anomalies are computed with respect to the\n1979-1988 base period monthly means. Following Wallace and\nGutzler (1981) the teleconnectivity maps are computed by\nplotting at each base point the strongest negative correlation\nvalue associated with that point, as determined from the one-\npoint correlation maps. Arrows are then drawn connecting the\nvarious centers of strong teleconnectivity to the grid points\nwith which they show the strongest negative correlation on their\nrespective one-point correlation maps. As with the\nteleconnection patterns, the teleconnectivity patterns should not\nbe considered true patterns in the vicinity of elevated\ntopography.\n3. CLIMATOLOGICAL FIELDS\nThe Southern Hemisphere climatological mean (1979-1988) 500\ncirculation is summarized for each calendar month in Figs. 1-\nThe left panels in each figure show the climatological mean\n6.\n500 mb height field (solid contours, interval is 120 m) and the\ncorresponding standard deviation field (dashed contours, interval\nis 30 m). Regions in which standard deviation values exceed 125\nm are shaded. The right panels in each figure show departures\n2","from the climatological zonal mean: termed standing waves\n(contour interval is 30 m)\n3a. Quasi-permanent features\nZonal flow clearly dominates the hemispheric circulation\nthroughout the year. The zonally averaged zonal mean\nclimatological wind speeds peak sharply near 50°S in January, and\nexhibit a broad maximum extending between 30°S and 50°S in July\n(Trenberth 1979, Trenberth 1981). Well-defined departures\nfrom\nzonal flow (termed standing waves), which are most prominent in\nzonal wave-1, can also be identified in all months. For the\npurposes of this Atlas, specific standing wave features which\nexhibit relatively little geographic variability from season to\nseason are summarized in this sub-section. Standing wave\nfeatures which exhibit pronounced geographic variability from\nseason to season are summarized in Section 3b.\nCertain features of the zonal wave 1 pattern exhibit\nrelatively little geographic variability from season to season\n(van Loon and Jenne 1972; and Randel 1987) Important synoptic\naspects of these wave features are summarized as follows. Over\nthe central and western Indian Ocean, a standing trough at high\nlatitudes, coupled with a standing ridge at middle latitudes, is\nassociated with a mean annual jet position near 50°s. This\npattern reflects strong zonal flow and an absence of blocking\nthroughout the middle and high latitudes of the Indian Ocean\nsector (Trenberth and Mo 1985) Over the South Pacific, a\nquasi-permanent standing wave pattern having opposite polarity to\nthat noted over the Indian Ocean sector is observed; a standing\nwave ridge axis is observed at high latitudes and a standing wave\ntrough axis is observed in middle latitudes. This pattern\nreflects broad diffluent flow throughout the western and central\nSouth Pacific in all months. The pattern also reflects a double\njet structure over the South Pacific, with separate speed maxima\ncentered at the date line near 65°S and equatorward of New\nZealand near 25-30°S (Arkin et. al. 1986; Trenberth 1987)\nFinally, height field variability in all months is maximized\nbetween 45°S and 65-70°s, within the main belt of westerlies\n(Trenberth 1981). Contours of standard deviation are closely\naligned with the height field contours, and exhibit very strong\nzonal symmetry. Individual standard deviation maxima are also\nstrongly zonally elongated throughout the year. Seasonal\nvariations in the distributions of height field variance are\ndescribed in section 3b.\n3b. Seasonal variations\nSeasonal variations in the standing wave pattern are\nstrongly controlled by zonal wavenumber 1, and are most\npronounced over the Indian and South Pacific Ocean basins. Over\n3","the Indian Ocean sector, standing wave trough axes are observed\nto the southwest of Australia and to the south of Africa between\nJanuary and July. During this same period, a weaker amplitude\nstanding wave ridge axis, displaced equatorward and westward from\nthe standing wave trough, strengthens slowly during April - July\nafter reaching minimum amplitude in January.\nBetween August and October a single standing trough is\nobserved over the south-central Indian Ocean. This trough is\nlarger in amplitude than is observed over the region during\nJanuary - July, and is associated with an intensification and\neastward shift of the mean jet to its late-winter/early fall\nposition over the central Indian Ocean. During October, this\nstanding wave trough weakens and redevelops further west. The\nmean trough axis then becomes located over the western Indian\nOcean during November and December. Also, as the warm season\nprogresses, the standing ridge axis over the western Indian\nOcean weakens.\nOver the southern South Pacific Ocean, a well-defined\nstanding wave ridge is observed during all months of the year.\nThe ridge axis retrogresses slowly from the central to the\nwestern South Pacific between November and July, and intensifies\nmarkedly from the warm to the cold season. The ridge reaches\nmaximum amplitude in June. Farther north, a standing wave trough\nbegins to amplify during May. The trough subsequently expands\nwestward and occupies the entire mid-latitude belt from western\nAustralia to the central South Pacific (the mean trough axis is\nlocated near 150-160°W) during June-August. Thus, the cool\nseason standing wave pattern over the western South Pacific is\ndominated by a ridge at high latitudes and by a trough at middle\nlatitudes. This pattern is consistent with diffluent flow\nthroughout the central South Pacific, and with a maximum\noccurrence of blocking events at high latitudes of the western\nand central South Pacific (van Loon 1956; Mo 1983; Trenberth and\nSwanson 1983; Lejenas 1984; Kayano and Kousky 1990) . During\nSeptember and October, the standing wave pattern weakens, and the\ncentral South Pacific ridge shifts to the high latitudes of the\neastern South Pacific.\nOver the hemisphere as a whole, height field variability is\nmaximized within the main belt of westerlies, with maximum values\nof standard deviation ranging from 110 m to 150 m throughout the\nyear. The areal extent of large height field variability\n(standard deviation values greater than 125 m) is smallest during\nthe warm season (November - February) and largest during the cool\nseason, particularly in April and May. In all seasons, height\nfield variability is maximized to the south of New Zealand and\nover the central Indian Ocean (see Trenberth 1981 and Trenberth\n1982 for a more detailed description of the variance\ncharacteristics of the Southern Hemisphere 500 mb height field)\n4","4. DISCUSSION\nThe one-point correlation patterns in both seasons tend to\nassume one of the four configurations described below. These\nconfigurations are used as a basis for summarizing in tabular\nform the primary structural characteristics of the teleconnection\npatterns. The summary table for each season is located just\nprior to the correlation charts for that season.\nThe four basic teleconnection patterns are defined as follows:\nMeridional dipole, zonally elongated: Zonally elongated\nanomalies with at least one primary negative correlation center\ndisplaced meridionally from the primary positive correlation\ncenter.\nWave 3 (or 4) pattern: Well-defined zonal wave 3 (or 4) pattern\nat the base-point latitude.\nWave 3 (or 4) pattern with zonal symmetry: Regions of positive\nand negative correlation extend zonally around the hemisphere,\nbut with well-defined zonal wave 3 (or 4) pattern at the base-\npoint latitude.\nIsolated Anomaly: Primary positive correlation center is\nsurrounded by regions of strong negative correlation. No well-\ndefined regions of positive correlation are found away from the\nprimary center.\n4a. Winter (May - September)\nZonally elongated features are particularly strong when\nreference points are taken at subtropical latitudes and near the\npole. The patterns at 20°S and 30°S tend to be zonally\nelongated, with one primary negative correlation center displaced\npoleward from the base point by approximately 30° latitude. The\ncorrelation patterns then assume a wave 3 structure between 40°S\nand 50°S over the South Atlantic and over the Indian Ocean, but\nremain zonally elongated throughout the South Pacific until 50°S.\nThe pattern over the South Pacific then maintains a wave 3\nstructure throughout much of the 50°S and 60°S latitude bands.\nThis wavenumber 3 pattern has been discussed thoroughly by Mo and\nWhite (1985) The eastward shift of the wave 3 pattern toward\nhigher latitudes of the South Pacific, and toward lower latitudes\nof the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, appears to reflect the\nclimatological poleward displacement of the mean jet position\nover the South Pacific relative to the other ocean basins (see\nsection 3)\nPoleward of the climatological mean westerlies, the\ncorrelation patterns assume a more zonally elongated structure.\nA significant exception is noted over the high latitudes of the\n5","eastern South Pacific, where the pattern exhibits a strong\nisolated anomaly structure. This structure partly reflects the\noccurrence of persistent blocking episodes. During these\nblocking episodes, positive anomalies are observed over the block\nregion, surrounded by negative anomalies to the east, west and\nnorth (Bell 1991) Finally, negative correlations with the South\nPole tend to be most pronounced near 45° S over the Indian and\nAtlantic Oceans.\nThe winter teleconnectivity patterns show strong regional\nvariations, with certain regions experiencing standing wave\noscillations having distinct nodes and antinodes. Similar\npatterns have been previously determined for the Northern\nHemisphere (Wallace and Gutzler 1981). Teleconnectivity values\nare highest from south of Australia eastward through the central\nPacific, and are generally lowest over the Atlantic and Indian\nOcean sectors. High teleconnectivity over the western South\nPacific is related to blocking activity (enhanced westerlies)\nwhen positive (negative) height anomalies are observed at high\nlatitudes. In contrast, low teleconnectivity values over the\nIndian and Atlantic Oceans are associated with minimum blocking\nactivity. The teleconnectivity pattern over the eastern South\nPacific resembles the Pacific/South American (PSA) pattern\nidentified by Mo and Ghil (1987) This pattern tends to be well\npronounced during blocking episodes and during equatorial Pacific\nwarm episodes (Karoly 1989)\n4b. Summer (November - March)\nThe summer patterns resemble their winter counterparts in\nfeaturing zonally elongated structures in the subtropics and\npoleward of 60°s. In mid-latitudes, the summer pattern is more\nzonally elongated than its winter counterpart, but tends to\nmaintain a wave number 3 or 4 structure. These features have\nbeen documented by Mo and White (1985) using 500 mb heights and\nby Trenberth and Christy (1985) using sea level pressures. The\nsummer correlation patterns at 60°S differ from their winter\ncounterparts in that they exhibit the following features: a more\nisolated anomaly pattern over the South Atlantic and Indian\nOceans, and a more zonally elonc ted pattern over the western and\ncentral South Pacific.\nThe summer teleconnectivity pattern is similar to the\ncorresponding winter pattern, in that maximum teleconnectivity is\nconfined primarily to the middle and high latitudes of the\nwestern and central South Pacific. The primary differences\nbetween the two charts are found over the eastern Indian and\neastern South Pacific Oceans. The wintertime north-south dipoles\nover both regions are absent during summer. Over the eastern\nPacific this reflects a reduction in the frequency of blocking\nactivity and an absence of the PSA pattern during the warm\nseason. The large negative correlation centered near 10 140°W\n6","is part of the zonally symmetric pattern of height anomalies\nwhich shows a reversal between low and mid-latitudes (see, for\nexample, the one-point correlation maps for 20° S, 140°W and for\n50°S,30° E) .\n5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS\nWe are grateful to Kingtse Mo and Ed O'Lenic for reviewing\nthe atlas. Special thanks go to John Kopman for his suggestions\nand help in preparing the figures.\n6. REFERENCES\nArkin, P. A., V. E. Kousky, and E. A. O'Lenic, 1986: Atlas of the\ntropical and subtropical circulation derived from National\nMeteorological Center operational analyses. Dept. of\nCommerce, NOAA Atlas No. 7. Copies can be obtained from the\nClimate Analysis Center, W/NMC52, 5200 Auth Rd, Washington\nD.C. , 20233.\nBell, G. D. , 1991: Diagnosis of a blocking episode over the\nsouth-central South Pacific. Proceedings of the Sixteenth\nClimate Diagnostics Workshop. Los Angeles, CA, October 1991,\n(in press).\nKaroly, D. J , 1989: Southern Hemisphere circulation features\nassociated with El Nino-Southern Oscillation events. J.\nClimate, 2, 1239-1252.\nKayano, M. T. and V. E. Kousky, 1990: Southern Hemisphere\nblocking: A comparison between two indices. Meteorol.\nAtmos. Phys., 42, 165-170.\nLejenas, H. 1984: Characteristics of southern hemisphere\nblocking as determined from a long time series of\nobservational data. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 100, 967-\n979.\nMo, K. C. , 1983: Persistent anomalies of the Southern Hemisphere\ncirculation. Proceedings of the First International\nConference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Sao José\ndos Campos, SP, Brazil, August 1983, Amer. Meteor. Soc. ,\n70-72.\nMo, K. C. , and G. H. White, 1985: Teleconnections in he\nSouthern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 22-37.\nMo, K. C. and M. Ghil, 1987: Statistics and dynamics of\npersistent anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci. , 44, 877-901.\n7","Namias, J. 1981: Teleconnections of 700 mb height anomalies for\nthe Northern Hemisphere. CALCOFI Atlas No. 29, Scripps\nInstitution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, 92093, 265 pp.\nRandel, W. J. 1987: A study of planetary scale waves in the\nsouthern winter troposphere, Part 1: wave structure and\nvertical propagation. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 917-935.\nTrenberth, K. E. and G. S. Swanson, 1983: Blocking and\npersistent anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere. Proceedings\nof the First International Conference on Southern Hemisphere\nMeteorology, Sao José dos Campos, SP, Brazil, August 1983,\nAmer. Meteor. Soc., 73-76.\nTrenberth, K. E. , 1979: Interannual variability of the 500 mb\nzonal mean flow in the Southern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev.\n,\n107, 1515-1524.\nTrenberth, K. E. 1981: Observed Southern Hemisphere eddy\nstatistics at 500 mb: frequency and spatial dependence. J.\nAtmos. Sci., , 38, 2585-2605.\nTrenberth, 1982: Seasonality in Southern Hemisphere eddy\nstatistics at 500 mb. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 2507-2520.\nTrenberth, K. E. , 1987: The zonal mean westerlies over the\nSouthern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev. 115, 1528-1533.\nTrenberth, K. E. and J. R. Christy, 1985: Global fluctuations\nin the distribution of atmospheric mass. J. Geophys. Res.\n,\n90, 8042-8052.\nTrenberth, K. E. and K. C. Mo, 1985: Blocking in the Southern\nHemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 3-21.\nvan Loon, H. 1956: Blocking action in the southern hemisphere,\nPart I. Notos, 5, 171-177.\nvan Loon, H., and R. L. Jenne, 1972: The zonal harmonic standing\nwaves in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Geophy Res 77,\n3846-3855.\nWallace, J. M. and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the\ngeopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere\nwinter. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 109, 784-812.\n8","500 MB HEIGHT AND STANDARD DEVIATION\nJAN\n500 MB HEIGHT - STANDING WAVES JAN\n0\nM\nrefer\nHOTA\n0\n5280\n100\n5760\n0\n500 MB HEIGHT AND STANDARD DEVIATION FEB\n500 MB HEIGHT- STANDING WAVES FEB\n0\n0\n1780\n0\nLeft-hand - panels show the climatological mean 500 mb heights\n(solid) and standard deviation (dashed) for January (top) and\nFebruary (bottom) . Right-hand panels show the corresponding\nclimatological mean 500 mb height field with zonal means removed\n(termed standing waves). Contour interval for heights is 120 m,\nand for both standard deviation and standing waves is 30 m.\nRegions in which standard deviation values exceed 125 m are\nshaded. Analyses are based on monthly mean 500 mb maps for the\nperiod 1978-1988.\n9","500 MB HEIGHT - STANDING WAVES MAR\n500 MB HEIGHT AND STANDARD DEVIATION MAR\na\n0\nLoth\n5288\nFoo\n5760\n500 MB HEIGHT- STANDING WAVES APR\n500 MB HEIGHT AND STANDARD DEVIATION APR\n01\n100\n00\n5760\na\n35\nLeft-hand panels show the climatological mean 500 mb heights\n(solid) and standard deviation (dashed) for March (top) and April\n(bottom) . Right-hand panels show the corresponding climatological\nmean 500 mb height field with zonal means emoved (termed\nstanding waves) . Contour interval for heights is 120 m, and for\nboth standard deviation and standing waves is 30 m. Regions in\nwhich standard deviation values exceed 125 m are shaded.\nAnalyses are based on monthly mean 500 mb maps for the period\n1978-1988.\n10","500 MB HEIGHT AND STANDARD DEVIATION MAY\n500 MB HEIGHT- - STANDING WAVES MAY\n0\n0\nan\n0\n100\n5760\n500 MB HEIGHT AND STANDARD DEVIATION JUN\n500 MB HEIGHT- STANDING WAVES JUN\n0\n20\nLOQ\n5760\nLeft-hand - panels show the climatological mean 500 mb heights\n(solid) and standard deviation (dashed) for May (top) and June\n(bottom). Right-hand panels show the corresponding climatological\nmean 500 mb height field with zonal means removed (termed\nstanding waves) Contour interval for heights is 120 m, and for\nboth standard deviation and standing waves is 30 m. Regions in\nwhich standard deviation values exceed 125 m are shaded.\nAnalyses are based on monthly mean 500 mb maps for the period\n1978-1988.\n11","500 MB HEIGHT- STANDING WAVES JUL\n500 MB HEIGHT AND STANDARD DEVIATION JUL\n0\n10A\n5760\n500 MB HEIGHT - STANDING WAVES AUG\n500 MB HEIGHT AND STANDARD DEVIATION AUG\n0\n.0\n0\n100\n100\n5760\n0\nLeft-hand - panels show the climatological mean 500 mb heights\n(solid) and standard deviation (dashed) for July (top) and August\n(bottom) Right-hand panels show the corresponding climatological\nmean 500 mb height field with zonal means removed (termed\nstanding waves) Contour interval for heights is 120 m, and for\nboth standard deviation and standing waves is 30 m. Regions in\nwhich standard deviation values exceed 125 m are shaded.\nAnalyses are based on monthly mean 500 mb maps for the period\n1978-1988.\n12","500 MB HEIGHT STANDING WAVES SEP\n500 MB HEIGHT AND STANDARD DEVIATION SEP\n2\n0\nFOOD\n80\n5760\n500 MB HEIGHT- - STANDING WAVES OCT\n500 MB HEIGHT AND STANDARD DEVIATION OCT\n0\n100\n100\n5760\n0\nLeft-hand - panels show the climatological mean 500 mb heights\n(solid) and standard deviation (dashed) for September (top) and\nOctober (bottom) . Right-hand panels show the corresponding\nclimatological mean 500 mb height field with zonal means removed\n(termed standing waves). Contour interval for heights is 120 m,\nand for both standard deviation and standing waves is 30 m.\nRegions in which standard deviation values exceed 125 m are\nshaded. Analyses are based on monthly mean 500 mb maps for the\nperiod 1978-1988.\n13","500 MB HEIGHT- STANDING WAVES NOV\n500 MB HEIGHT AND STANDARD DEVIATION NOV\nCo\nIn\n5280\n100\n5760\n500 MB HEIGHT- - STANDING WAVES DEC\n500 MB HEIGHT AND STANDARD DEVIATION DEC\n0\n100\n12\n(100\n5280\n5760\nLeft-hand - panels show the climatological mean 500 mb heights\n(solid) and standard deviation (dashed) for November (top) and\nDecember (bottom) . Right-hand panels show the corresponding\nclimatological mean 500 mb height field with zonal means removed\n(termed standing waves) . Contour interval for heights is 120 m,\nand for both standard deviation and standing waves is 30 m.\nRegions in which standard deviation values exceed 125 m are\nshaded. Analyses are based on monthly mean 500 mb maps for the\nperiod 1978-1988.\n14","WINTER (MAY-SEPT)\nCENTRAL,\nSOUTH\nINDIAN\nWESTERN\nEASTERN\nLATITUDE (S)\nATLANTIC\nOCEAN\nS. PAC\nS. PAC\n20\nMERIDIONAL DIPOLE,\nZONALLY ELONGATED\n30\n40\n:\n50\nNO WAVE\nWAVE 3 PATTERN\n3 OVER\nEAST S. PAC.\n:\nMERIDIONAL\nISOLATED\nDIPOLE,\nANOMALY\n60\nWEST\nZONALLY\nELONGATED\nISOLATED\nMERIDIONAL DIPOLE,\nANOMALY\n70, 80\nEAST\nZONALLY ELONGATED\nCHARACTERISTIC\nOF BLOCKING\nEVENT\nNEGATIVE CORRELATIONS MOST PRONOUNCED NEAR\nS. POLE\n45S OVER INDIAN AND ATLANTIC OCEANS\nTABLE 1: Summary of wintertime (May - September) teleconnection\npatterns determined subjectively from one-point teleconnection\nmaps computed from monthly mean 500 mb height anomalies for the\nperiod 1979-1990. Patterns are identified at 10° latitude\nincrements for five primary regions: The South Atlantic, the\nIndian Ocean, the western South Pacific, the central and eastern\nSouth Pacific, and the polar region. See Introduction for a\ndescription of terms.\n15","TELECONNECTIVITY OF MONTHLY MEAN 500 MB HEIGHTS\nWINTER\n$\n50\n50\n50\n50\n50\n50\nBC\n0\n50\n60\n0\n60\n50\n50\n50\n50\n50\n80\n100\n50\n80\n50\n00\n50\nso\nit\nTeleconnectivity of monthly mean 500 mb geopotential height\nanomalies for the Southern Hemisphere cold season (May -\nSeptember) showing the strongest negative correlations (negative\nsigns omitted) for each one-point correlation map plotted at the\nbase grid point. Correlations are multiplied by 100 and are only\ncontoured for values less than -0.5. Values less than - -0.6 are\nshaded. Arrows connect centers of strongest teleconnectivity\nwith grid points which show strongest negative correlation on\nHigh\ntheir respective one-point correlation maps.\nteleconnectivity values in the vicinity of elevated terrain are\ndue to changes in model resolution and/or changes in analysis\nprocedures. For those regions the values should be ignored (see\ntext). .\n16","23\n34.\n+\n50\n93\n33\n23\n+\n+\n35\n+\n53\n40\n40\n27\n40\n23\n0\n98\n0\n28\n48\n34.\n20S, 20E\n4\n20S, 50E\n41\n&\n022\n14.5.\n16\n9\n8.\n1.\n28\n.\n23\nEE\nF\n25\n29\n4\n.\n28\n36\nB48\n+\n20\n+\n44\n32\n+\n33\n40.\n34\n44\n23\n0.\nit\n47\n45\nBD\n29\n7\n20\n31\n+\n90\n40\n+\n40\n36\n40\n+\n96\n40.\n44.\n40\n40\nNO\n20S, 10E\n20\n20S, 40E\n23\n0.\n+\n39\n12\n14\n16\n24\nin\n8\n36.\n3.\n+\n+\na\n39\n28\n+\n28\n&\n3\n28\nt\n473\n28.\nB\n29\n33\n42\n27\n43\n8.\n+\n22\n4\n29\n4\n+\n98\n40\n4\n40\n22\n40.\n98\n0\n0\n40\n53\n48\n34\n23\n9\n20S, 30E\n+\n7\n20S, 0\n28\n15/\n8.\n34\n11\n23\n4\n40\n0.\n+\n37\n36.\n10\n23\n14\n48.\n27\n3\n40\nD.\n4\nC4-P\n35\n35\n40.\n4s\n40\n55\n1/3\n5","1\n40.\n+\n41\n39\n10.\n+\n5\n5.\n11\n40\n50\n3\n25\n18.\n40\n20S, 110E\n0\n35\n13.\n20S, 80E\n11\n94\n1.\n27\n31\n33\n40\n23\n4\nc\n62\n+\n24\n4.\n49\n8\n+\n96\n23\n45.\n25\n40\n7\n26\n40\n25\n25\n38.\n13\n58.\n8/.\n44\n+\n+\n41\n40.\n46.\n45.\n4D\n0.\n2.\nSO\n+\n4\n0.\n25\n8.\n20S, 100E\n94\n34\n30\n20S, 70E\n30\n44\n17\nG\n0\n36\n52\n+\n94\n34.\n42\n40\n45.\nB45\n0 -\n4Q\n22.\n47\n46\n35\n39\n40\n5.\n5.\n19.\n+\n26\n40\n45\n38\n42\n4A\n40\n35\n13.\n0.\n30.\n38\n99\n0\n1\n20S, 90E\n3\n34\n20S, 60E\n17\n30\n54\n8\n40\n4-0\n1\n98\n3.\n29\n16.\n+\n21\n40\n52\n39\n52\n28\n0\n39\n6\n+\n23\n10.12\nP\n0.\n10.\n25\n46\n24\n28\n40\n24\n31\n8","24\n3121-\n47\n22\n4B\nx\n+\n33\n40\n40.\n40\n+\n45\n2-7'\n37\n37\n13\n24\n45\n20S, 140E\n20S, 170E\n32\n16\n0\n25\n24\n(-)\n41\n38\n4\n34\n$\n440\n55\n4.\n38\n50\n0\n40\n0\n40\na\nof\nAD\n97\n59\n25\n30\n+\n98\n0\n+\n29\nR\n40\n+\n39\n47\n40.\n45\nx\n4\n28\n31\n32\n43\n20S, 130E\n20S, 160E\n4\n25\n16\nsi\n30\nSH\n26\n(+\n28\n25\n33.\n7\n38\n46\n7.\n36\nAb\n4.\n11\n88\n52\n5/1\n40\n40\n40\n39.\n62\n46\n+\n96\n19\n57\n18.\n00\n+\n30\n2\n23\n40\n37.\n56\n2\n40.\n0,\nSD\n0\n40\n+\n3.\n40\n48\n0.\ng\n46\n25\n18\n2-5\n20S, 120E\n20S, 150E\n2222\n22\n14/\n18\n9\n(1)\nB4\n28\n37.\n28\n4\n38\n3.\nX\n4\n99\n33\n30\n22\n+\n39. 22\n4Q\n58.2\n40.\n55\n40\n19.\n99\n40\n28.","20\n37\n27.\n28\n+\n43.\n42\n3.\n33\nBD\n8.\n19.\na.\n20S, 130W\n21\n20S, 160W\n23\n+\n37\n(4)\n31\n44.\n40\n30\n53\n+\n+\n28\n42\n7\n42.\n+\n0\n97\n40\nis\n40\n40\n4\n33.\n10\n95\n23\n43.\n1.\n+\n35.\n40.\n41\n40\n36\n1.\n44\n22.\n20S, 170W\n20S, 140W\n3D\n17.\n204\n+\n570\n27\n34\n+\n0.15\n44\n0\n0-\n38.\n39\n0.\n40\n4B.\n40.\n40\n334\n23.\n57,\n0\n1+\n97\n20.\n80\n+\n96\n38\n24\n38.\n6.\n42\n86\n42\n16\n221\n48\n1-1\n22.\n&\n49\nPB\n20S, 150W\n39\n20S, 180\n19\n+\n1334\n35\n42\n42\n22\n28\n34.\n+\n4,0'\n40.\n10\n58.\n0\n39.\n52.\n40\n52\n18\n99\n40\n50\n25\n24\n99\n80\n0.\nto\n20","52\n26\n0.\n8\n27.\n32\n38\n2\nB.\nx\n38\n26\n86\n0\n13\n22\n4\n29\n0.\n3.\n20S, 100W\n20S, 70W\n35\n#23\n0.\n8.16\n25\n6,\n19\n33\ny\ng\n1B\n8\n9\n11\n95\n26\n23.\nIL\n40\n0\n00\n25\n20.\n+\n30\n12\n32\n+\n+\n0.\n15\n29\n+\n10.\n6\n5\n54\n8\n22\n+\n+\n25\n16\n25\n2.\n20\nQ\n6\n21\n35\n24.\n11.\n4\n+\n34\n32\n+\n12.\n15.\n20S, 110W\n40\n31\n20S, 80W\n33\nUT\n0\n0\n23\n40\n26\n40\n35\n53\n1.\n30\n94\n32\n38\n)+\n40\n38\n35\nY5\n+\n25\n420\n35.\n33.\n22\n+\n34\nto\n.\n3535\n36.\n2\n1\n+\n34\n+\n34\n87.\n20S, 120W\n21\n+1\n36\n20S, 90W\n0.\n32\n4\nT\n01\n4.\n16\n98\n2\n32\n30\n42\n46\n40\n32.\n'55\n+\n40\n& +\n27\n36\n99\n.\nAll\n45.\n2\n11.\n38.\n21","42\n94\n40\n52\n40.\nAO\n40.\n26\n4'0\n48\n51\n9\n45\n46\n44\n44\n20S, 10W\n20S, 40W\n* O\n38\n38\n2.21\n5\n1.\n'+\n46\n19\n40.\n40\n42.\n0\n35\n40.\n37\n3\n+6\n4BK\n4.0\n82\n34\n40\n32.\nA7.\n22\n24\n49\nS\n36\nsa\n23\n*\n40\n22\n12\n23\n40\n54\n31\n40\n40\n40\n98\n45\n34\nB\n38\n20S, 50W\n40\n20S, 20W\n4\n28\n39\n25\n3\n31\n+\n23\n0\n28\n36\n80\n++\n+\n0.\n36\n41.\n334.\n39.\n7.\n40\n0\n514\n35\nCALA\nis\nis\n47\n22\n+\n42\n26\n25%\n17\n33.\n7.\n22\n40\n7\n0\n31/\n7\nQ.\n+\n99\n62\n475$\n36\n4Q.\n29.\n158\n39.\n981\n20\n34\n44\n20S, 30W\n20S, 60W\n0.\n0\n25\n()\n33.\n3\n2\n3\n0\n43\n0\n12\n25\n0.\nJ-\n30\n34\n40\n40.\n38\n51\n39.\n20\n0.\n22","8.\n40\n43\n+\n4\n29.\n4D\n40\n95\n34\n38\n34\n20.\n40\n30S, 20E\n30S, 50E\n22\nD.\ne\n3\n35\n1.\n0.\n4\n2\n38\n0\n43\n35\n47\n+\n34\n-\n32\n+\n28\n3D\n16\n28\n+\n38\na\n6\n13\n40,\n49\n21\n35\n2\nR.\n41\n40\n36\n96\n26\n+\n33\n40\n25.\n94\n27\n26\n35\n34\n40\n32\n30S, 10E\n7\n30S, 40E\n33,\n35\n0\n2\n28\n46.\n21\n51\n25\n43\n36.00\n2\n39\n4\n+\n31\n15\n15\n441.\n+\n2\n10\n0\n40\n21\n100\n0\n4/0\n40\n12\n2\n35\n46\n38\n4Q\n37\n32.\n30S, 30E\n8\n30S, 0\n20\n31\n3.12\nBO\n+\n9\n38.\n20\n+\n28\n-\n38\n40\n47\n42\n®\n4\n28\n+\n34\n26\n25\n2/1\n2\n23","3\n2\n16\n0.\n2\n0.\n31\n6\nB4\n30\n17.\n2\n44\n+\n10\n49\n+\n40\n21\n-\n30\n41\n33\n40.\n30S, 110E\n23\n30S, 80E\n12\n5.\n31\n5)\n31\n2\n41\n43\n0\n0\n40.\n0\n99\n39\n36\n28\n31\nto\n55\n+\n15\n34.\n10\n33\n+\n3.\no\n0.\n8\n9.\n7.\n16\n17.\n16.\n33\n35\n24\n17\n23\n23\n0\n1+\n23\n40\n(8\n24\n13\n+\n30S, 100E\n24\n99\n40\n30S, 70E\n10\n40.\n10\n32\n25.\n10\n5\n6\n95\n+\n24\n32\n29\n28\n17\n3.\n21\n6\n0\n&\n4.0\n19.\n4\n39\n0\n0\n5\n5.\n22\n13.\n26\n+\n26\n21\n33\nH\n+\n4\n+\n39\n0.\n40\n0\n34\n0\n17.\n97\n20\n40\n30S, 60E\n30S, 90E\nto\n18\n22\n43\n317\n21\n00\n46\n3031\n18.\n43\n0.\nn.\n+\n48\n40\n3\n26\n27\n20.\nQ\n27\n10\n+\nst:\n4\n22\n2.\n38\n26\n4'1","3\n3\n45.\n4\n40\n40\n35.\n45\n+\n43\n49\n34\n43\n40.\n8\n16.\n30S, 140E\n30S, 170E\n0\n19\n#\n26\n42\n38\n3-T\n0\n40.\nAD\n31\n54\n50\n40\n46\nit.\n80\n98\n21.\n20\n10\n1.\n20\n1\n+\n42\n40.\nB\n48\n42\n41\n45\n46\n45\n30S, 160E\n30S, 130E\ng\n13\n33\n14\n4B\n85\n+\n0\n9\n40.\n40.\n4-0\n29,\nAB.\n99\n38\n55\n36\n35\n99\nis\n12\n14\nQ.\n42.\n47\n+\n45\n+\n13\n44\n43\n40\n0\n0.\n40\n33\n43\n44\n30S, 120E\n30S, 150E\n0.1\n_4\n20\n34\n11\n5\n49\n2\n+\n23\n27\n4Q\n40.\n40\n34\n3.\n31\n39\n56\n9\n36\n80\nR.\nRx\n20\n25","16\n0\n37\nB7\n+\n+\n30\n26\n38\n0\n40\n21\n0.\n4243\n30\n40\n2>\n22\n30S, 160W\n30S, 130W\n24\n7.24\nto\n33\n471\n21\n3\n53.\n15\n0.\n52\n0.\n26\n20\n97\nLA\n40\n0.\n40\n55\n99\n0..\n80\n49\n15\n5\n35\n+\n10\n32.\n+\n22\n+\n31\n0\n32\n.\n42\n0\n26'\n22\n8.\n45\n36\n0\n30S, 170W\n24\n30S, 140W\n45\n44\n35\n+\n38\n21\n0.\n3\n45\n40.\n35\n4.\na\n44\na\n40\n59\nA\n+\n97\n7\n40\n98\n40\ni.\n8\n9.\n86\nto\n4\n23\n33\n33\n33\n33\n43.\n21\n33\n34\n22\n48\n0.\n30S, 150W\n-40\n30S, 180\n26\n34\n330\n19\n494\n33\n+\n+\n5.\n29\n5556\n20\n19\n.\n66 40\n0\n24\n58,\n17\n28%\n24\n48\nBe\n40\n96\n100\n80.\n40\n95\nL\n23\n9","10\n111\n0\n23\n8.\n+\nB\n22\n+\n16\n39\n23\n23\n39\n0.10\n40.\n31\n2\n30S, 100W\n30S, 70W\n99\n20\n4\n0.\n0\n18\n40\n9B\n30-\n40\n1-\n9\n0\n20\n0\n&\nD\n7.\n+\n38\n3\n2.\n3\n37.\n+\n40\n29\n15.\n5\n6.\nO\n19\nD.\n24th\n28\nif\n34.\n0\nS\n0\n6.\n30S, 110W\n+\n33\n16\n30S, 80W\n23\n40\n0\n241.\nOU\n9B\n1726\n12/47\n39\n29\n18\n18\n32.\n604\n24.\nof\n09\nQ.\n42.\n40\nt\n22\n0\n0.4\n0.\nis\n22\n22\n22\n16\n42\n8\n28\n9.\n26\n16\n1.\nT4\n+\n17\n27\n31\n29\n39\n3.\n0.\n18.\n+\n32\n29'\n29\nIX\n23\n20\n36\n30S, 120W\n+\n30S, 90W\n29\n14\n+\n40.\n0 14.\n27\n11\n00\n0\n21\n14\n12.\n17\n+\n15.\n405\n594\n0.\n14.\n42.\nB.\n40\n96\n0\n17\n0\n8.\na\n31.2\n8\n35\n29\n28\n46\n40.\n86\n27","0.\n5\n11\n0.\nA\n40\n7\n196\n40\n40\n26\n33\n28\n10\n37\n30S, 40W\n30S, 10W\no.\n39\n8.\n+\n23\n0\n4\n6\n0.\n0\n+\n23\nor\n19\n+\n22.\n+\n9\n33\n10\n19.\n39\n12\nBa\n11\n22\n5\n167\n26\n0.\n6.\n3D\n11\n28\n30\n+\n31\n8\n40\n98\n0\n80.\n+\n40\n26 26.\n20.\n96\nt\n-25\n19.\n30S, 50W\n30S, 20W\n36\n42.\n5\n34.\n6.\n22.\n29\n4.\n35\n28\nA\n0\n21\n0\n0.0\n22\n0.\n32\n13\n+\n20\n19\n8\nF18.\n@\n24\n22\n22.\nB\n0.\n33\n16\n10.\n16.\n32\n0.\n3\n25%\n0\n0.\n30\n35\n19\n4D\n3.\n95\n0.\n4\n40\n23\n8\n25\n33.\n96\n+\n4\n30S, 60W\n30S, 30W\n5\n41\n(5)\n0\n35\n26\n13.\n19\nA\n24\n0\n+\n20\n0\n17\n22\n13\n18\n18.\nAnd\n28\n14\n25.\n27\n33\n29\n8","1.\n24\n2.\n29\n22\n13.\n34\n33.\n0\nOB\n40\n+\n98\n37\n1/5\n45\n*\n22\n40S, 50E\n40S, 20E\n0.\n14\n5\n33\n13\n35\n12\n0\n0.\n46\n46\n36\n18.\n24\n14.\n0\n25\n0\n29\n27.\n3D\nD\n25.\n44\n0\n25\n19\n19\n2Y.\n83.\n34\n341\n8\n6\n17.\n40\n21\n2\n0\n96\n27\n+\n95\n40\n1/2\na\n42\n44\n40S, 10E\n40S, 40E\n11\n24\n35\n27\n30\n1,\n36\n36\n+\n36\n0\n17.\n40\n2b\n25\n50\n36\n18\n2\n28\n23\nis\nB\n25\n8\n14\n26\n0\n30\n23.\n14\n39,\n22\n32\n0\n++\n96\na\n94\n48:1.0.\n0\n40\n4\n40\n40S, 30E\n37\n40S, 0\n28\n38\n31\n26\n+\n30\n9\n39.\n36\nO\n29\n2J\n38 40 39\non\n+\n29\na\n85\n27\n35\n18\n19.\n6\n19\n7\n17\n29\n23\n28\n29","9.\n0\n13.\n32\n33\n26\n2A\n37\n0\n39.\n+\n50\n8\n45\n21\n9\n17.\n40S, 110E\n40S, 80E\n40\n49\n96\n45\n55.50\n40\n3B\n1\n95\n37.\n32\n38\n-4D\n37.\n27\n28\n34\n47\nYou\n26\n8.\n44\n37\n13\n31\n0\n6\n0.\n29\n34\n3.4\n2\n23\n2\n7.\n0\n44\n12\n+\n40.\n48\n37\n32\n24\n40S, 100E\n40S, 70E\n40\n49\n+\n97\n0.\n17\n15\n40\n46\n52\n25\n34\n50\n96\n4.0\n0\n49\n47\n33\n39\n30\n42\n,37\n1\n0\n13\n0\n32\n9\n36\n35\n24\n0\n38.\n40\n50\n23\n4\n+\n25\n43\n29\n40\n96\n0.\n40S, 60E\n40S, 90E\n40\n14.\n48\n0.\n8.\n40\n1\n51\n28\n0.\n34\nA7\n17.\n0\n+\n0\n34\n48\n30\n28\n43\n4'2\n30","2.\n32\n42.\n3\nB7\n38\n0\n31:\n40\n39\n10.\n30\n40S, 170E\n40S, 140E\n22\n25\n29\n38.\n24\n27.\n0.\n}9\n40.\n40\n25\n54r\n23.\nS1\n85\n4 ¥\n43\n+\n46\n28\n96\n80\n95\n40\n4\n6\n28\n12\n+\n20\n33.\n40\n+\n35.\n49\n+\n43\n0.\n29\n30\n38\n36\n40S, 160E\n16.\n40S, 130E\n29\nor\n2b\n18\n29\n43\n28\n(5)\n31\n40\n0\n40.\n19\n35\n40.\n40.\n60.\n68\n96\n52\n42\nBB\n18\n+\n98\n18\n12.\n18\n0.\n'o\n5\n0.\n+\n25\n3.\n10\n41\n43\n0\n50.\n32\n+\n20\n22\n33\n40S, 150E\n40S, 120E\n20\n31\n18\nIF\nAO\n27\n43\n36\n37\n0\n&\n21\n2\n40\n40\n0\n12.\n&\n35\n14.\n63.\n4/0\n0\n13\n0.\n37\n36.\n21","9\n26\n01\n16.\n18\n14\n30.\n41\n34\n14\n13\n15\n40S, 160W\n40S, 130W\n240\n33\n34-\n2\n20\n21.\n28\n12\n9\n33?\n23.\n0\n98\n40\n22;\n+\n97\n40\n32\n25.\nhad\n36\n10\n23\n9.\n18\n28\n0\n32\n0\n19\n21\n2.\n11\n30\n20\n47\n-22\n10\n40S, 170W\n40S, 140W\n19\n2D\n34\n+\n19.\n40.\n321\n19\n54\n14.\n23\n39\nA\nd\n14.\n97\n0.\n40\n30\n36.\n27\n+\n40\n29\n0\n31\n2\n21.\n33\n17.\na\n38\nand\n+\n36\n46\n:\n26\n36\nD\n36\n29\nis\n30.\nB\n30\n15\n18\ni\n16.\n28\n27\n0\n4\n30\n36\n0\n40\n4.\n1.\n+\n99\n44\n0\n2B\n0\n41.\n94\n36\n30S, 20W\n0\n30S, 50W\n40\n+\n89\n414\n+\n19\n40\n21\n3B\n0\n28\n12\nt\n37\n22\nFE,\n6\n22\n31\n37\n4\n12\n18.\n31:\n10~\n31\nB\n33\n22\n2\n18\n4\n0.\n/\n+\n30\n22\n35.\n27\n16\n+\n40.\n7.\n3.\na\n4.\n94.\n23\n2\n94 40.\n28\n21\n0\n44\n89.\n20\n21\n18\n40%\n34\n41\n21.\n30S, 30W\n30S, 60W\n65\n12\n+\n39\nG\n23\nor\n26:\n22\nAt\n24\nNO.\n0\n0\n21\nof\n41\n199.\n+\n28\n38.\n13\n25\n10\n+\n4\n8.\n11 20\n32\nis\n33\n85\n6.\n20\n14\n+\n0\n23.\n0\n3\n69","10\n30\n24\n0.\n3.\n2929\n37\n5.\n40\n+\n95\n40\n12\n37.\n34\n95\n0\n40\n40\n6.\n40S, 20E\nIS\n40S, 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