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Endangered Species Act Section 7 Biological Opinion: Incidental harassment authorization to allow for incidental takes of marine mammals during shallow hazards survey in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, 2011
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    This opinion will address the potential effects from authorization of a “small take” permit under section 101 (a)(5) of the MMPA, for certain oil and gas exploration activities in the U. S. Chukchi Sea for 2011. Its purpose is to provide an assessment of those actions on the continued existence of the bowhead, fin, and humpback whales, as well as to provide measures to conserve the species and mitigate impact. This biological opinion incorporates much of the information provided by PR1, as well as pertinent research on the whales and matters related to oil exploration. Traditional knowledge and the observations of Inupiat hunters are presented, along with information gained through scientific research. This combined knowledge contributes, along with western science, to a more complete understanding of these issues. A reasonable assessment of potential effects can only be made by considering both these systems of knowledge.
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