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The use of complex quality control for the detection and correction of rough errors in rawinsonde heights and temperatures, a new algorithm at NCEP/EMC
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    Complex quality control (cqc) was a new concept when introduced to NCEP by Lev Gandin in the late 1980's. The basic idea is that no decisions are to be made on data quality until the results from all checks, in numerical form, are available. In addition, data are to be corrected when possible. Since Lev's arrival at NCEP, the author has worked with him to introduce cqc for the quality control of rawinsonde heights and temperatures and Doppler profiler winds. The principles were also used in the quality control of many other data types.This note describes the code that resulted from rethinking the strategy for rawinsonde heights and temperatures. The mandatory and significant levels are now treated together, rather than first all the mandatory levels, and then the significant levels. The data are considered, one level at a time, from the ground upward. There is also a greater opportunity for complex errors to be corrected since, whenever an error is corrected, then all residuals are recalculated and computations begin anew from the lowest level. Only after all possibly correctable errors are considered are observational errors looked for.The note begins with a general consideration of errors, then turns to methods of error detection and correction. The detail becomes higher as the code specifics are described. Sample output from the code is described, examples are given, and statistical results of use of the code are presented.
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