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ATS6 radio beacon electron content measurements at Boulder, July 1974-May 1975
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    "The Radio Beacon Experiment aboard the synchronous satellite ATS6 [Davies, et al., 1975a] provided the first opportunity to routinely monitor the electron content of the earth's ionosphere and inner magnetosphere by both Faraday rotation and group delay (also known as modulation phase) techniques. Faraday rotation of polarization is an integrated measure of free electrons along the ray path while group delay is an integrated electron content measure without weighting. Content derived by Faraday measurements (i.e., Faraday content) is representative of the electron content of the ionosphere to a height of approximately 2000 km [Titheridge, 1972; Almeida, 1973; Davies el at., 1976]. The difference between the total and Faraday contents then is a measure of the remaining plasmaspheric electron content. Routine monitoring of the plasmaspheric content was a primary objective of the ATS6 Radio Beacon Experiment (RBE) and this set critical requirements on transmitter and receiver stabilities [Grubb et. al., 1976]. The satellite transmitted linearly polarized signals on carrier frequencies of 40.016, 140.056, and 360.144 MHZ, with modulations of 100.04 kHz and 1.004 MHz. This provided coarse and fine scales of measurements so that the cycle ambiguity in the phase measurements of both Faraday rotation and group delay could be resolved"--Introduction.
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